Chapter 4: Western Europe

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Parliament
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the law-making body of the United Kingdom
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representative
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a person who represents, or speaks for, a group of people
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constitution
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a set of laws that describes how a government works
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constitutional monarchy
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a government in which a monarch is the head of state but has limited power
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What is the difference between the terms Great Britain and the United Kingdom?
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The difference between the terms Great Britain and the United Kingdom are the countries in Great Britain are England, Scotland, and Wales but the countries in the United Kingdom are England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.
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List four events in order that led to the formation of the United Kingdom.
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1. The Roman Empire fell 2. The kingdom of Wessex conquered other kingdoms to unify England 3. England incorporated Scotland and Wales 4. Great Britain brought Ireland under its control
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What are the two houses of the British Parliament?
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The two houses of the British Parliament are the House of Lords and the House of Commons.
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How do the two houses of Parliament differ?
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The House of Lords are high ranking citizens of the community who are not elected and have limited power but the House of Commons are elected citizens that govern the nation.
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What kind of governement does the United Kingdom have?
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The British govenment is a constitutional monarchy.
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How does the British constitution differ from that of the United States?
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The British constitution is made up of laws passed by Parliament, important court decisions, and certain legal practices but the United States’ constitution is one document.
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What four regions make up the United Kingdom?
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England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland are the four regions that make up the United Kingdom.
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What is the Magna Carta?
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The Magna Carta is a written document that limits the power of the king.
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What was the Magna Carta’s purpose?
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The Magna Carta forced the king to follow the laws of the land.
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What purpose does the monarchy serve?
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The monarchy serves as an important symbol of Britain’s past. The monarchy also helps unify the British people.
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Why has trade always been important to the United Kingdom?
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Trade has always been important to the United Kingdom because it has limited resources because it is an island nation, so it must trade with other nations for the needed supplies.
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What factors have helped the United Kingdom become a leading member of the European Union?
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The United Kingdom’s experience in such areas as shipping and finance has strengthened the European Union in global trade; in turn making it a leading member of the EU.
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What do elected officials do in the British Parliament?
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Elected officals discuss laws and other government buisness in the British Parliament.
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What region of the United Kingdom doesn’t have a regional assembly?
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Only England does not have a regional assembly. Its laws are still made by the national Parliament.
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What is devolution?
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The process of moving lawmaking power from the national level to the regional level is called devolution.
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philosophy
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a system of ideas and beliefs
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Name two French contributions to the arts.
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Two French contributions to the arts are painting and music.
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What was Baron de Montesquieu’s philosophy about government?
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The idea that government should be divided into three branches comes from Baron de Montesquieu.
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What was Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s philosophy about government?
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The idea that no laws are binding unless people have agreed to them comes from Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
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How did these philosophies influence the United States?
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These philosophies are now in place in the United States. For example, the United States’ government is divided into three branches and is a republic, which means that laws are voted on by representatives of the people.
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Why did the French government encourage immigration following World War II?
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After World War II France had a shortage of workers, because repeated wars had resulted in many deaths and lowered birth rates. As a result the French government started to encourage immigration to fill these positions.
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Why did tensions arise between native- born French citizens and immigrants to France in the 1970s?
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Tensions arose because in the 1970s, large numbers of immigrants along with their families moved to France, a time when the economy was weak to fill positions that the native French thought were theirs.
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When immigrants move to a new country, how do they change a country for better or worse?
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Better: They bring their own cultures and traditions to the country including food, religions, and languages. Worse: Some might think that immigrants take jobs away from people who live in the country. Also that they might cause the traditional cultures of the country to change.
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In what fields have the French made important contributions over the centuries?
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Art, religion, music, literature, and philosophy are the fields that the French have made contributions in.
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What is the French Academy?
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The French Academy determines what words are officially accepted as part of the French language.
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How does the French Academy help preserve French culture?
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The French Academy helps preserve French culture by assuring that the language won’t change too much.
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For what achievement is the French impressionist artist Claude Monet known?
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Impressionist artist Claude Monet developed new techniques for painting light and shadow.
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What features characterize Gothic architecture that developed in Paris during the 1100s?
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High ceilings, thin walls, and the use of columns and arches are features that characterize Gothic architecture that developed in Paris during the 1100s.
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Why is French culture changing?
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French culture is changing because the cultures of other nations are influencing French culture more and more.
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From which regions of the world have many immigrants come to France in the past few decades?
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In the past few decades, many immigrants have arrived from Northern and Southern Africa, as well as Southeast Asia and Algeria. They also arrived from other European countries like Poland, Italy, Spain, Belgium, and Switzerland.
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welfare state
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a country in which many services are paid for by the government
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national debt
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the amount of money a government owes
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What benefits do Swedish citizens receive?
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Swedish citizens receive services and benefits such as medical care, family leave, child care, education, five weeks paid vacation, sick leave, and retirement payments.
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Why are some Swedes willing to pay such high taxes?
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Swedish people are willing to pay high taxes for the security the benefits give them.
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Why did many Swedes leave their country in the late 1800s?
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Many Swedes left their country in the late 1800s because with few factories, railroad lines, or good roads, farming methods had changed little. Many people were poor so they left there country in search of a better life.
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What effect did industrialization have on Sweden’s economy?
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With industrialization, Sweden’s economy grew stronger.
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What kind of welfare system does Sweden have? What does that mean?
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Sweden has a “cradle- to- grave” welfare system. That means that the system provides basic services for all people at every stage of life.
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basilica
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a Roman Catholic church that has special, high status because of its age or history
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manufacturing
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the process of turning raw materials into finished products
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land reform
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the process of dividing large properties into smaller ones
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Where is Vatican City?
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Vatican City is in Rome, the capital of Italy.
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How does the Vatican operate as a city- state?
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Vatican City has its own -banks -police force -money – radio station -newspaper – fire department all located entirely within Rome.
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Name three differences between life in Northern Italy and life in Southern Italy.
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Northern Italy has – international businesses -manufacturing – industries – more prosperity Southern Italy has – more agriculture – more tradition
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How did regional differences emerge in Italy over time?
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After the fall of the Roman Empire, different groups settled in Northern and Southern Italy. Their cultures shaped the people who lived in the regions.
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How does the Roman Catholic Religion unite Italians?
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Roman Catholicism is an important part of the history of Italy.
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Holocaust
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the mass murder of six million Jews
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reunification
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the process of becoming unified again
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standard of living
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the level of comfort in terms of the goods and services that people have
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What was Germany’s punishment for its role in World War I?
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Germany had to pay billions of dollars as punishment for attacking other countries.
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How did that punishment lead to the rise of Adolf Hitler and the beginning of World War 1?
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When Germany had to pay billions of dollars to other countries for their role in World War I the economy collapsed and prices soared. In result, Germans became desperate.
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Describe the events that led to the division of Germany.
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1. Germany lost the war. 2. The victors divided up Germany. 3. Americans, British, and the French joined their parts to create Western Germany 4. The Soviet Union created a communist country in Eastern Germany. 5. The Berlin Wall was built.
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How did most Germans feel about the fall of the Berlin Wall?
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Most Germans were thrilled about the fall of the Berlin Wall.
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Describe the events that led to the reunification of Germany.
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1. Communist rule started to weaken or change. 2. Protests started 3. People were allowed to visit Western Germany 4. The Berlin Wall was destroyed. 5. The capital of the whole country changed to Berlin.
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How has the reunification of Germany affected life in former East Germany?
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The government privatized companies and modernized factories and businesses. The government also cleaned up toxic waste. Also East Germans weren’t assured jobs.
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What two events caused Germans to become desperate after Germany lost World War I?
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After Germany lost World War I: 1. The economy collapsed and 2. prices soared leading Germans to become desperate.
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Who became dictator of Germany in 1933?
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Adolf Hitler became dictator of Germany in 1933.
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What actions led to the start of World War II in 1939?
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Hitler ordered attacks on neighboring countries and forced them to submit to German rule. His actions led to the start of World War II.
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By the end of World War II, what had happened to Europe and millions of people.
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By the end of the war, Europe was in ruins. Also people around the world learned that Hitler killed six millions Jews among others.
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How was Germany divided at the end of World War II?
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At the end of World War II, the victors divided up Germany. Americans, British and French joined their sections together to create Western Germany. The Soviet Union created a communist system in East Germany.
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What happened to Berlin when Germany was divided?
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Berlin was split up into two parts: democratic West Berlin and communist East Berlin.
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In what country was Berlin located?
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Berlin was located in East Germany.
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How did the life of an average West German compare with the life of an average East German?
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In East Germany: -people were required to obey laws without asking questions -the government encouraged people to spy on family members and neighbors -children were taught to respect only things that promote communism. In West Germany: -people could express their believes and speak freely
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What happened to the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989?
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On November 9, 1989, a crowd of East Berlinians crossed into West Berlin and celebrated their new found freedom by singing and dancing. They also started to knock down the wall.
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How has the reunited Germany affected Germans in the east?
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The East Germany’s economy improved with the help of the Western Germany. Also East Germans didn’t have guaranteed jobs and they had a higher standard of living in the new reunited country.

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