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Chapter 4 Physical Geography

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Most of the radiation incident upon the earth falls within the what part of the spectrum?
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Shortwave
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The Sun’s radiant energy reaches the earth across space in approximately?
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8 mins
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The phenomenon of Rayleigh scattering is most closely associated with which visible electromagnetic wavelengths?
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Blue
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Which of the following is the most prolific producer of carbon dioxide?
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Burning of fossil fuels
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Cooling of air expansion is called
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Adiabatic process
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Which wavelengths are most poorly transmitted through the atmosphere?
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Longwaves
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Which substance is the best transmitter of solar energy?
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Air
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The higher latitudes receive much less intense insolation than tropical zones because of?
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Sun’s angle of incidence
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Heat transferred laterally in the atmosphere by horizontal wind movements is a process called
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Advection
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In the electromagnetic spectrum, visible light occupies the band between 0.4 and 0.7
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Micrometers
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What objects radiate in shorter wavelengths than what objects
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Hot and Cold
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The solar energy reaching Earth travels a distance of what million kilometers?
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150
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The only major country still using the Fahrenheit scale for temperature determination is
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USA
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The Earth as a body has a yearly net loss of energy at the top of the atmosphere north of ________ degrees north latitude.
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28
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A(n) ________ emits the maximum amount of radiation possible, at every wavelength, for its temperature
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Blackbody Radiator
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Earth’s reradiation to space consists mainly of ________ rays
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Longwave
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The specific heat of water is greater than that of land. This means
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Water cools more slowly than it does on land
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At 0 Kelvins
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Molecular motion stops
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Adiabatic processes cause cooling by?
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Decompression
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Advection is what type of wind movement?
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Horizontal
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Amount of the total insolation absorbed by the earth is equal to the amount of radiation going back to the atmosphere is due to.
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Law of conservation of energy
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For the most part the atmosphere is heated directly from the
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Earth’s surface
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A temperature inversion is mainly an inversion of the
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Normal lapse rate
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Which of the following is a “greenhouse gas” (natural or human-induced)?
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Carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, chlorofluorocarbons
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Albedo is energy ________ from an object as compared to the original amount of energy that struck the object.
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Reflection
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At which locations is solar energy most concentrated?
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At places where the angle of incidence is 90 degrees
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The MAIN source of atmosphere heating is from the
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Reradiation of energy from the Earth
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Solar energy is also known as
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Insolation
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The basic direction of flow of the Equatorial counter current is
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To the east
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On the equatorward side of each subtropical gyre is found the
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equatorial current
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The reddish tint of the Sun at sunset results from ________.
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Scattering
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True or False
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True or False
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The horizontal movement of clouds in the atmosphere is advection.
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True
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The general circulation of the oceans is a major mechanism for the transfer of energy from the Tropics to the Poles.
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True
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The Celsius degree is the same size as a Kelvin but 0° Celsius is much warmer than 0 K.
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True
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Ultraviolet energy is the name for electromagnetic wavelengths measuring from 10 to 15 micrometers.
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False
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Ocean gyres rotate clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
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True
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Over the long run, all energy the Earth receives from the Sun is returned to space
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True
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Coriolis effect sets ocean currents in motion.
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False
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Convection is more efficient in a liquid as compared to a solid.
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True
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Solar radiation striking Earth’s surface is characterized as “longwave”.
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False
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The distance of passage of a solar beam through the atmosphere is determined by the angle of incidence.
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True
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Conduction comes about through molecular collision.
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True
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Evidence clearly suggests global warming is taking place.
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True
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In a continental climate one would expect higher winter temperatures than in a maritime climate.
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False
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Convection is associated with vertical air movements.
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True
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Summer temperatures are generally higher over continents than over oceans
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True
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The position of the major oceanic gyres is caused by the major atmospheric
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True
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Albedo is the same phenomenon as advection.
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False
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Air is an excellent conductor of heat.
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False
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High angle solar energy will traverse a shorter course through the atmosphere than low angle solar energy.
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True