Chapter 4 Ionic Theory of Solutions and Solubility Rules

Flashcard maker : Bernice Cooper
ionic theory of solutions
certain substances produce freely moving ions when they dissolve in water, and these ions conduct an electric current in an aqueous solution
electrolyte
substance that dissolves in water to give an electrically conducting solution (salt)
nonelectrolyte
substance that dissolves in water to give a nonducting solution (sucrose)
how strong or weak electrolytes are depend on…
how many ions dissolve in solution (strong electrolyte- most dissolve as ions)
solubility
ability to dissolve
spectator ion
an ion in an ionic equation that does not take part in the reaction
net ionic equation
an ionic equation from which spectator ions have been canceled
precitate
an insoluble solid compound formed during a chemical reaction in solution
precipitation reactions
two ionic substances is mixed to form a solid ionic substance
exchange (or metathesis) reaction
a reaction between compounds that appears to involve the exchange of parts between the two reactants
acid
the molecule or ion that donates a proton to another
base
the molecule or ion that accepts a proton in a reaction
strong acid/weak acid
strong acid-ionizes completely in water; is a strong electrolyte
weak acid- partly ionizes in water; is a weak electrolyte
strong base/weak base
strong electrolyte/weak electryolyte
neutralization reaction
a reaction of an acid and a base that results in an ionic compound and possibly water
oxidation-reduction reactions
involve the transfer of electrons between reactants
half-reaction
combination reaction
a reaction in which two substances combine to form a third substance
decomposition reaction
a reaction in which a single compound reacts to give two or more substances
displacement reaction
a reaction in which an element reacts with a compound, displacing an element from it
acid-base reaction
a reaction in which an acid substance reacts with a base. involves the transfer of a proton
combustion reaction
a reaction in which a substance in which a substance reacts with oxygen to produce flame
molarity
the molar concentration of the moles of solute dissolved in one liter of solution
gravimetric analysis
quantitative analysis in which the amount of a species in a material is determined by converting the speicies to a prouduct that can be isolated completely and weighted
quantitative analysis
the determination of the amount of a substance present in a material

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