Chapter 4 hist and syst

Multitasking
-1861: wilhelm wundt had never heard of multitasking
-wundt was inspired by Bessel’s work on the personal equation
-wundt interested in whether one can attend to two stimuli at once

No multitasking involved: experiment
Wundts attempt to tesy whether one person can perceive two stimuli at the same moment
-stimuli: sound of a bell, sight of pendulum
-subject: himself
-conclusion: one cannot attend to twi stimuli simultaneously
-both register sequentially
-time for both stimuli register. 1/8th of second

GEDANKENMESSER
THOUGHT METER, mind gauge and WUndt used it to measure the mental process of perceiving the two stimuli

Multitasking makes you stupid because
we cannot effectively manage more than once cognitive task at a time

Wundt wrote
consciousness hold only a single thought, a single perception. when it appears as if we have several percepts simultaneously, we deceived by their quick succession

Wundt was the founding father of
psychology as a formal academic discipline, he established the first laboratory, edited the first journal, and began experimental psychology as a science.

Areas wundt investigated
sensation and perception, attention, feeling, reaction, and association

Why have the honors for founding the new psychology fallen to wundt and not fetchner?
the answer lies in the nature of the founding a school of thought. founding is the deliberate and intentional act. it involves personal abilities and characteristics that differ from those necessary for brillaint scientific contributions. founding requires the integration of prior knowledge and the publication and promotion of the newly organized material. Wundts contribution to the founding of modern psych stems not so much from unique idea of systematic experimentation. founding is different from originating. Fetchner was not trying to find a new science. his goal was to understand the relationship between the material and mental worlds. described a unified conception of mind and body that had a scientific basis

________ and ________ are both essential to the formation of a science, as indispensable as the architect in the builder in the construction of a house
founders and originators

Wundt is the founder because
he set out to find a new science. Wundts goal was to promote psychology as an independent science. He did not originate it though

Last half of the nineteenth century, the zeitgeist
experimental methodology to problems of the mind

wundt began the longest and most important phase of his career in 1875 when he became
a professor at the University of Leipzig-worked for 45yrs. Here he established the laboratory and founded the journal Philosophical Studies-the official publication of the new labs and the new science. Supposed to be called psychology studies and in 1906 changed it

Leipzig lab exerted immense
influence on the development of modern psych

most of wundts book were translated to _____ than any other language
russian

Wundt was a popular
lecturer. one time his class had 600students

Cultural psychology
dealt with the various stages of human mental development as manifested in language, art, myths, social customs, laws, and morals.

cultural psych served to divide the new science of psychology into two major parts
the experimental and the social

Wundt believed that the simpler mental functions such as sensation and perception must be
studied through laboratory methods

for investigating higher mental processes such as learning and memory
scientific experimentation is impossible because these processes are conditioned by language and other aspects of our cultural training

Wundt thought higher thought processes could be approached
only by the non-experimental means used in sociology, anthropology, and social psychology.

The most satisfying experience in wundts working life
10years in cultural psychology but it had little impact on american psych

Reason for lack of interests in Wundts cultural psychology
timing of its publications

Voluntarism
came from the word volition, act of power or willing.the idea that the mind has the capacity to organize mental contents into higher lever thought processes.

Mediate experience
provides information about something other than the elements of that experience

Wundt recognized that the elements of consciousness were
basic. without the elements there would be nothing for the mind to organize

According to wundt psychologists should be concerned with
the study of immediate experience rather than mediate experience.

Immediate experience
is unbiased by interpretation

immediate experience of looking at a red flower is not the object itself but
instead the experience of something that is read

Wundt thinks basic human experiences form
the sate of consciousness that the mind actively organizes.

Wundts goals were to
analyze the mind into its elements, its component parts, just as the natural scientists were working to break down their subject matter-the physical universe

Dimitri Mendeleev
developing the periodic table of chemical elements supported Wundts aim.

Historians suggested wundt may have been striving to develop a the
periodic table of the mind

Franz Brentano
-Taught at Wurzburg
-directly contradicted wundt
-empirical study

Introspection
Examination of one’s own mind to inspect and report on personal thoughts or feelings

Who originated Introspection
not Wundt, but can be traced back to Socrates

Wundt’s Goals of New Psychology
-Analyze conscious processes into their basic elements
-Discover how these elements are synthesized or organized
-Determine laws of connection governing the organization of the elements

2 Elementary forms of Experience
Sensations
Feelings

Who suggested elementary forms of Experience
Wundt

Tridimensional theory of feelings
Wund’s explanation for feeling states based on three dimensions: pleasure/displeasure, tension/relation, and excitement/depression

Wundts observation device of Tridemensional theory of feelings
Metronome

Appreception
The process by which mental elements are organized

Who said: “The whole is different form the sum of its parts”
Gestalt psychologists

10 Years before Wundt died (German Psychology)
3 Journals
Several textbooks and laboratories

By 1925
25 People in Germany identified as Psychologists
only 14 of 23 universities had established separate psychology departments

Criticisms of Wundtian Psychology
Criticism of introspection because we can not yield the same answers, because it is personal examination of one’s own mind.

Wundtian Movement
Natural outgrowth of the development of the physiological sciences, particularly in German Universities.

Who helped Wundt’s work progress and move to the United States?
The work of Charles Darwin and Francis Galton

Hermann Ebbinghaus
-German Psychologist
-Higher Mental Processes (memory)
-1st Psychologist to investigate learning and memory
-Proved Wundt Wrong on that point
-Changed in which association, or learning, could be studied

University of Bonn, Halle, Berlin
Ebbinghaus

Ebbinghaus’ academic training
Shifted from history and literature to philosophy

Military Service in Franco-Prussian war
Ebbinghaus

Brentanos primary method for psychology
observation. He considered an empirical approach to be generally broader scope bc it accepts data from observation and individual experience as well as from experimentation

Brentanos opposed Wundts
fundamental idea that psychology should study the content of conscious experience

Brentanos argued the proper subject matter for psychology is
mental activity, such as the mental action of seeing rather than the mental content of what a person sees

act psychology
questioned the Wundtian view that mental processes involve contents or elements. brentanos system of psychology, which focused on mental activities rather than on mental content

Brentanos argued that a distinction should be drawn between
experience as a structure or content and experience as an activity

EXAMPLE
In looking at a red flower, the sensory content of redness is different from the act of experiencing or sensing redness

Brentano advanced two ways to study mental acts
-through memory (recalling a mental process involved in a particular mental state)
-through imagination (imagining a mental state and observing the accompanying mental processes)

Carl stumpf argued
primary data for psych are phenomena

phenomena
stumpfs inrtospective method that examined experience as it occurred and did not try to reduce experience to elementary components. Also an approach to knowledge based on an unbiased description of immediate experience as it occurs, not analyzed or reduced to elements

stumpf disagreed with wundt
about breaking experience down into elements. Stumpf believed that to analyze experience by reducing it to mental contents or elements is to make that experience artificial and abstract and thus no longer natural

Edmund Hussel
student of stumpfs proposed philosophy of phenomenology , considered a precursor of Gestalt psych

Stumpf founded
the Berlin Association for Child Psychology and he published a theory of emotion that attempted to reduce feelings to sensations, and idea relevant to contemporary cognitive theories of emotion

Oswald Kulpe
led a group of students in a protest movement against what he saw as the limitations of Wundtian psychology. Kulpe worked on problems that Wundt ignored

“kind mother”
Oswald Kulpe, because he was always ready to help students with their problems

Kulpe diiferences with Wundt
kulpe did not discuss the process of thought; at the time. Wundts view that it was impossible to experiment on the higher mental processes. couple yrs later kulpe was convinced that thought processes could indeed be studied experimentally

Systematic experimental introspection
kulpes introspective method that used retrospective reports of subjects cognitive processes after they had comlpeted an experimental task

Imagless thought
Kulpes idea that meaning in thought can occur without any sensory or imaginal component

karl Marbe
on the comparative judgement of weights. Although sensations and images were present during the task, marbe found that thy seemed to play no part in the process of judgement Subjects were unable to report on how their judgment of lighter or heavier came into their minds

Henry Watt
demonstrated that in a word association task, subjects had little relevant information to report their conscious process of judgment

Ebbinghaus’ customary way to study learning
to examine associations that were already formed

One of he greatest instances of original genius in Experimental Psychology
Ebbinghaus’ work on learning and forgetting

Nonsense syllables
Syllables presented in a meaningless series to study memory

Length of syllables
4,5, or 6 letters long

Ebbinghaus’ languages
-German
-English
-French
-and studied Latin and Greek

Memorize one stanza (of 80 syllables)
takes 9 readings to memorize

meaningless series of 80 syllables
nearly 80 repetitions to memorize

Koing
Physicist who confounded (with Ebbinghaus) journal called The journal of Psychology and Physiology of the Sense of Organs

How did ebbinghaus die
Pneumonia

Ebbinghaus did not
-did not make theoretical contributions
-no formal system and no disciplines
-did not found a school of thought, nor did he want to
-only valued the imporatance of studying and learning

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