Chapter 39 & 40 APUSH

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Stagflation
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During the 60’s and 70’s, the U.S. was suffering from 5.3% inflation and 6% unemployment. Refers to the unusual economic situation in which an economy is suffering both from inflation and from stagnation of its industrial growth.
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Vietnamization
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President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
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Nixon Doctrine
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During the Vietnam War, the Nixon Doctrine was created. It stated that the United States would honor its exisiting defense commitments, but in the future other countries would have to fight their own wars without support of American troops.
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Silent Majority
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that group of quiet honest hard-working middle class Americans who do their job, respect their country and support gov.; Nixon wants their votes in 1968 and 1972
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My Lai
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1968, in which American troops had brutally massacred innocent women and children in the village of My Lai, also led to more opposition to the war.
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Kent State University
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Kent State was the location of one of the many college student protests against the Vietnam War. The protest ended with a clash against the police and the death of several students. The incident greatly decreased the support for U.S. involvement in Vietnam and caused even more protest and resentment.
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26th Amendment
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18 year olds can vote
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Henry Kissinger
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Awarded 1973 Nobel Peace Prize for helping to end Vietnam War and withdrawing American forces. Heavily involved in South American politics as National Security Advisor and Secretary of State. Condoned covert tactics to prevent communism and facism from spreading throughout South America.
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DĂ©tente
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A policy of reducing Cold War tensions that was adopted by the United States during the presidency of Richard Nixon.
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Salt
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negotiations between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics opened in 1969 in Helsinki designed to limit both countries’ stock of nuclear weapons
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Judicial Activism
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An interpretation of the U.S. constitution holding that the spirit of the times and the needs of the nation can legitimately influence judicial decisions (particularly decisions of the Supreme Court)
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Griswold v Conn.
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court decision bringing the right to privacy into existence
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Gideon v Wainwright
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a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history. In the case, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are required under the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants unable to afford their own attorneys.
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Escobedo v Ill
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1964, attorney was denied access to client after he was requested by the client, after 4 hours of questioning, he confessed to the crime.
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Miranda v Az
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the accused must be told their rights at the time of arrest
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Engel v Vitale
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banned formal prayer in schools, goverment whould not make any religion the ‘official’ religion.
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NY Time v Sullivan
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(1964) The court said public officials may not win damages for defamatory statements regarding their official conduct unless they can prove actual “malice” that is, that the statements were made knowing that they were false of with reckless disregard of whether they were true of false.
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Reynold v Sims
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ruled that legislative districts within a state must be roughly equal in population.
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Roe v Wade
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(1973) legalized abortion on the basis of a woman’s right to privacy
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SSI
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Supplemental Security Income – brought together all the programs for the aged, the blind, and the disabled. The federal government makes a monthly payment to anyone who is 65+, blind or disabled, or who has little or no regular income.
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Philadelphia Plan
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required construction-trade unions working on the federal pay roll to establish “goals and timetables” for black employees.
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OSHA
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Occupational Safety and Health Administration, a government agency in the Department of Labor to maintain a safe and healthy work environment
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EPA
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An independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment
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Rachel Carson
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United States biologist remembered for her opposition to the use of pesticides that were hazardous to wildlife (1907-1964)
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Clean Air Act
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Set emission standards for cars, and limits for release of air pollutants
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Southern strategy
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Nixon’s plan to persuade conservative southern white voters away from the Democratic party
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George McGovern
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A Senator from South Dakota who ran for President in 1972 on the Democrat ticket. His promise was to pull the remaining American troops out of Vietnam in ninety days which earned him the support of the Anti-war party, and the working-class supported him, also. He lost however to Nixon.
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War Powers Act
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Act that grants emergency executive powers to president to run war effort
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Pol Pot
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Leader of the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, who terrorized the people of Cambodia throughout the 1970’s
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New Isolationism
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The public’s desire to stay isolated after the Vietnam War. The US involvement in Nicaragua was one event that tested this.
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Oil embargo
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Economic crisis of 1973 that occurred when OPEC nations refused to export oil to Western nations. Ensuing economic crisis plagued Gerald Ford’s time in office.
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Watergate
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1972; Nixon feared loss so he approved the Commission to Re-Elect the President to spy on and espionage the Democrats. A security gaurd foiled an attempt to bug the Democratic National Committe Headquarters, exposing the scandal. Seemingly contained, after the election Nixon was impeached and stepped down
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CREEP
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Richard Nixon’s committee for re-electing the president. Found to have been engaged in a “dirty tricks” campaign against the democrats in 1972. They raised tens of millions of dollars in campaign funds using unethical means. They were involved in the infamous Watergate cover-up.
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25th Amendment
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Adopted in 1967 to establish procedures for filling vacancies in the office of president and vice president as well as providing for procedures to deal with the disability of a president.
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Executive Privilege
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The power to keep executive communications confidential, especially if they relate to national security.
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Helsinki Accords
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Political and human rights agreement signed in Helsinki, Finland, by the Soviet Union and western European countries. (p. 839)
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Title IX
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No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance
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Reverse discrimination
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Discrimination against the majority group
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ERA
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Camp David
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A peace treaty between Israel and Egypt where Egypt agreed to recognize the nation state of Israel
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Anwar Sadat
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Egyptian statesman who (as president of Egypt) negotiated a peace treaty with Menachem Begin (then prime minister of Israel) (1918-1981)
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Menachem Begin
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Israeli statesman (born in Russia) who (as prime minister of Israel) negotiated a peace treaty with Anwar Sadat (then the president of Egypt) (1913-1992)
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Malaise Speech
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A speech made by President Carter which included a series of proposals for resolving the energy crisis. He referred to the nation as a “crisis of confidence” that had struck “at the very heart and soul of our national will.” Fueled charges that Carter blamed problems on the people.
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Iranian Crisis
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In 1979, Iranian fundamentalists seized the American embassy in Tehran and held fifty-three American diplomats hostage for over a year. The Iranian hostage crisis weaked the Carter presidency; the hostages were finally released on January 20, 1981, the day Ronald Reagan became president.
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Milliken v Bradley
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1974 Supreme Court case that ruled that desegregation plans could not require students to move across school district lines, which was a victory for anti-busing proponents who felt that Swann v Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education was an injustice
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New Right
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Conservative movement that was not content with Jimmy Carter’s direction liberalism, and the moral decline in America.
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Ronald Reagan
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(1981-1985) and (1985-1989), first elected president in 1980 and elected again in 1984. He ran on a campaign based on the common man and “populist” ideas. He served as governor of California from 1966-1974, and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. While president, he developed Reagannomics, the trickle down effect of government incentives. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. He used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which bought hostages with guns.
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Jimmy Carter
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(1977-1981), Created the Department of Energy and the Depatment of Education. He was criticized for his return of the Panama Canal Zone, and because of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, he enacted an embargo on grain shipments to USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow and his last year in office was marked by the takeover of the American embassy in Iran, fuel shortages, and the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, which caused him to lose to Ronald Regan in the next election.
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Gerald Ford
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1974-1977, Republican, first non elected president and VP, he pardoned Nixon
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Neoconservatives
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A group that championed free-market capitalism liberated from government restraints, anti-soviet positions in foreign policy, questioned liberal welfare programs, and called for the reassertion of traditional values of individualism and the centrality of the family
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ABC Movement
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This came up during the next election and how no one wanted Carter in office any longer, the movement means, “Anybody But Carter” in office.
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Proposition 13
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Also known as the “tax revolt”, it was a Californian ballot measure in 1978 that slashed property taxes and forced deep cuts in government services.
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Reaganomics
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The federal economic polices of the Reagan administration, elected in 1981. These policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supply-side tax cuts, and domestic budget cutting. Their goal was to reduce the size of the federal government and stimulate economic growth.
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Yuppies
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Term for “young urban professionals” of the 1980s who flaunted their wealth through conspicuous consumer spending
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Solidarity
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Also the principle of “friendship” or “social charity”; manifested first in the distribution of goods and the remuneration of work
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Sandinistas
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A group of reform-minded revolutionaries that included a large number of women and students who over threw the Nicaraguan government in 1979
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Contras
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All the ways they are different
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Walter Mondale
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He was the vice president of Carter and when he won the democratic nomination he was defeated by a landslide by Reagan. He was the first presidential candidate to have a woman vice president, Geraldine Ferraro.
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Geraldine Ferrara
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First woman running mate of Walter Mondale.
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Mikhail Gorbachev
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Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe.
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Glastnost/Perestroika
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Allowed more freedoms and restructured government under Gorbachev. Made communism fall faster.
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Corazon Aquino
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Elected in 1986, she was the first female president of the Philippines.
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Iran-Contra Affair
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(RR) Americans kidnapped in Beirut by Iranian govt, so deal, scandal including arms sales to the Middle East in order to send money to help the Contras in Nicaragua even though Congress had objected, Poindexter and North involved
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Moral Majority
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“Born-Again” Christians become politically active. The majority of Americans are moral people, and therefore are a political force.
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Sandra Day O’Connor
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1st Female Supreme Court Justice
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Webster v Reproductive Health
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1989, Upheld a Missouri law that imposed restrictions on the use of state funds, facilities and employees in performing, assisting with, or counseling on abortions.
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Planned Parenthood v Casey
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A 1992 case in which the Supreme Court loosened its standard for evaluating restrictions on abortion from one of “strict scrutiny” of any restraints on a “fundamental right” to one of “undue burden” that permits considerably more regulation.
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S&L Crisis
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The savings and loan crisis of the 1980s and 1990s was the failure of 747 savings and loan associations. The ultimate cost of the crisis is estimated to have totaled around $160.1 billion, about $124.6 billion of which was directly paid for by the US government—that is, the US taxpayer, either directly or through charges on their savings and loan accounts—which contributed to the large budget deficits of the early 1990s.The concomitant slowdown in the finance industry and the real estate market may have been a contributing cause of the 1990-1991 economic recession.
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Black Monday
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The largest percentage drop in stock market history, occurred in October, 1987
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Michael Dukakis
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He was governor of Massachusetts and George Bush’s demorcratic opponet in the election of 1988
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Rainbow Coalition
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Jesse Jackson’s idea of forging an alliance between groups of minorities and the disadvantaged
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Boris Yeltsin
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President of the Russian Republic in 1991. Helped end the USSR and force Gorbachev to resign.
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Tiananmen Square
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Site in Beijing where Chinese students and workers gathered to demand greater political openness in 1989. The demonstration was crushed by Chinese military with great loss of life
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George HW Bush
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President from 1989-1993, president 1989-93; economic recession and US involvement in the Persian Gulf war
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Persian Gulf War
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(1990 – 1991) Conflict between Iraq and a coalition of countries led by the United States to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait which they had invaded in hopes of controlling their oil supply. A very one sided war with the United States’ coalition emerging victorious.
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Operation Desert Storm
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the United States and its allies defeated Iraq in a ground war that lasted 100 hours (1991)
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Clarence Thomas
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2nd african american supreme court justice
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Americans with disabilities act
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Passed by Congress in 1991, this act banned discrimination against the disabled in employment and mandated easy access to all public and commerical buildings.
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Panama
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A 10-mile strip of land across Panama for $10 million and an annual rent of $250,000. As one of the great engineering feats of the time, it reduced shipping costs by cutting more than 7,000 miles and helped extend U.S. naval power by allowing the fleets to move between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

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