Chapter 3: Nile Civilizations

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delta
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an area at the mouth of a river made up of silt deposits
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cataracts
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rocky stretches marked by swift currents and rapids
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Menes
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the ruler from Upper Egypt that conquered the north and founded Memphis, the capital of unified Egypt
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pharoah
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the head of government; king
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theocracy
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a state ruled by religious figures
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bureaucracy
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a highly stuctured organization managed by officials
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Hatshepsut
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one of the few women to rule Egypt; acted like a male; trade
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Akenhaten
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changed the official religion from polytheism to monotheism
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Ramses the Great
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pharoah that led his army to fight the Hittites; both sides say they won
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obelisks
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tall, thin pillars with pyramid-shaped tops
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mummification
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the making of mummies
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hieroglyphics
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the main Egyptian writing system using pictures to represent objects, sounds, and ideas
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hieratic
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form of Egyptian writing used mostly for religious texts
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demotic
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form of Egyptian writing used mainly for legal and literary writings after 500 BC
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papyrus
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a reedy plant that grew along the Nile; Eygptians used the pulp to make paperlike sheets
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Rosetta Stone
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a broken granite slab that had the same text written in hieroglyphic, demotic, and Greek; a French scholar used the Greek to decipher the hieroglyphics
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Piankhi
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the ruler who led the Kushites north into Egypt; a compassionate ruler who was also ruthless
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smelt
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refining iron
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Amon-Re
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sun god; king of the gods
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Osiris
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Isis’s husband, king of the dead
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Isis
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sister and wife of Osiris; king of the dead
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Anubis
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decided where people went in afterlife; protector of the dead
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Hathor
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the cow-headed goddess of love
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Thoth
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god of wisdom
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Menes
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“I ruled both Upper and Lower Egypt and founded the city of Memphis.”
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Hatshepsut
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“I took power around 1500 BC and was one of the few women to rule Eygpt.”
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Tut
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“After Akhenaton’s death, I restored the worship of Egypt’s traditional gods and moved the kingdom’s captial back to Thebes.”
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Ramses the Great
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“I married a Hittite princess, built more temples and monuments than any other pharoah, and left an important political and artistic legacy.”
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Piankhi
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“I was the Kushite ruler who conquered all of Egypt and made myself pharoah around 750 BC.”
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grow crops and create settlements along the river
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What did the flooding of the Nile enable people to do?
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Old Kingdom
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the long period of stable rule beginning around 2650 BC; known as the Third dynasty
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Hyksos
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Who was overthrown to begin the Egypt’s New Kingdom?
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built a permanent army and conquered new land
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What did the pharoahs do during the New Kingdom?
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medicine and human anatomy
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What advances did the Egyptians make?
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ka
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the spirit of the afterlife
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pyramid
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where the bodies of royals were buried
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Early Kingdom
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unification of Egypt; farming villages; first dynasty formed
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Old Kingdom
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pyramids; pharoah; theocracy; bureaucracy
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Middle Kingdom
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trade; stability; economic prosperity
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New Kingdom
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drove Hyksos out; powerful military; Hatshepsut; monotheism; Ramses the Great; traded with the Hittites
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dynasty
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a group of rulers from the same family
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Piankhi
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Kushite ruler who conquered Egypt
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successor
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a person who follows another in a position
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Hatshepsut
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female ruler of Egypt who encouraged the expansion of trade
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scope
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expanse or degree
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Menes
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ruler who united Upper and Lower Egypt
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Ramses the Great
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Egyptian ruler who built great monuments in both Egypt and Kush
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kept them alive; developed their knowledge; food; water; transportation; created fertile soil
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Why was the Nile so important to Egypt?
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started to live in a civilized manner
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Why do you think many historians consider the unification of Egypt under Menes the beginning of Egyptian civilization?
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tombs of the pharoahs
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What was the purpose of the Old Kingdom pyramids?
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had more respect
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How did the perception of pharaohs as gods add to their power?
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was rational and efficient
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How could a bureaucracy increase the speed and efficiency with which a government operates?
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Hyksos took control
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What led to the end of the Middle Kingdom?
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the mineral exploitation of the valley and surrounding desert region; early development of an independent writing system; the collective construction and agricultural projects
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Why were pharaohs able to increase trade during the Middle Kingdom?
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successful trade; monotheism
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For what deeds are Hatshepsut and Akhenaten best known?
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gain more control and power over their kingdoms
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Why did some New Kingdom pharaohs want to build an empire?
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homes to gods
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What were Egyptian temples like?
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controlled every aspect of their lives
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Why were the Egyptians careful not to offend any of their gods?
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to have another life after death
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How did the Egyptian idea of the afterlife lead to the beginning of mummification?
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pharaoh, royal family, government officials, priests, scribes, military leaders, land owners, doctors; artisans, craft peoples, merchants; poor farmers
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What were the main social classes in ancient Egypt?
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had more rights
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How did the lives of women in ancient Egypt differ from the lives of women in other ancient societies?
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providing the translation to Egyptian hieroglyphics
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What was the Rosetta Stone, and why was it important in translating hieroglyphics?
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taught them the process of preserving; let them study the body and how it worked
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How did mummy-making advance Egyptian science?
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depiction of gods and their daily life
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What makes Egyptian painting and sculpture distinctive?
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northern Sudan and upper Egypt; dry and arid
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Where was the region of Nubia? What were the land and resources there like?
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trade, war, and politics
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Why and how did the early Nubians come into contact with the Egyptians?
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farming
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How did Nubia’s location eventually lead to the growth of a wealthy civilization?
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invaded Egypt
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What was Piankhi’s major accomplishment?
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treated it as their own
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How did Egypt influence Kushite culture after the Kushites conquered Egypt?
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produced iron and close to water
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What were two ways in which Meroe’s location was beneficial to Kush?
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created their own alphabet and writing system
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How was Kushite writing during the later Kushite kingdom different from what it had been in earlier Kush?

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