CHAPTER 3 Cell Structure and Function – Flashcards

question
A bacterial cell possesses a glycocalyx.
answer
It will be able to attach to surfaces. It will be less likely to dry out. It will be more pathogenic
question
Eukaryotic cells use a process known as __________ to obtain liquids from their environment. Eukaryotic cells use a process known as __________ to obtain liquids from their environment.
answer
pinocytosis
question
Lipid-soluble molecules would be expected to cross the cytoplasmic membrane by which of the following processes
answer
diffusion
question
ATP is expended in which of the following processes?
answer
both active transport and group translocation
question
component of bacterial flagella?
answer
flagellin basal body hook filament
question
characteristic of a eukaryotic cell
answer
has a nuclear envelope more complex than prokaryotes has membrane-bound organelles
question
The presence of a(n) ________ enables bacterial and plant cells to resist the effects of hypotonic solutions
answer
cell wall
question
Tumbles occur when
answer
the flagella rotate clockwise
question
Which of the following types of bacterial cells would have only a single flagellum?
answer
Monotrichous
question
Peritrichous bacteria make a run when
answer
the flagella turn counterclockwise and become bundled
question
Which of the following types of bacterial cells would have flagella located at only one end of the cell?
answer
Lophotrichous and monotrichous
question
Eukaryotic ribosomes are composed of
answer
60S and 40S subunits
question
Formation of a biofilm may contribute to bacteria's ability
answer
to cause disease.
question
Why is ATP necessary for active transport?
answer
ATP provides energy to transfer material against its concentration gradient
question
Which type of active transport protein moves two molecules into the cell at the same time?
answer
Which type of active transport protein moves two molecules into the cell at the same time?
question
Which transport protein employs transporters that move molecules only in one direction?
answer
Uniport and Symport
question
Which type of active transport protein uses one protein to pump two different molecules?
answer
Antiport and Symport
question
Bacteria
answer
__________ may have pili.
question
The accumulation of glucose 6-phosphate inside a bacterial cell via phosphorylation of glucose is an example of
answer
group translocation
question
Which of the following processes requires a carrier protein?
answer
both facilitated diffusion and active transport
question
Which of the following statements concerning endocytosis and exocytosis is CORRECT?
answer
Endocytosis produces a structure called a food vesicle.
question
Which of the following is classified as a membranous organelle of eukaryotic cells?
answer
endoplasmic reticulum
question
Using a microscope, you observe an amoeba moving toward a food source. This is an example of
answer
responsiveness
question
A(n) ________ is a type of glycocalyx that is firmly attached to the cell.
answer
capsule
question
Short, hairlike structures used only by eukaryotic cells for movement are called
answer
cilia
question
Chloroplasts differ from mitochondria in that they have
answer
light-harvesting pigments.
question
Bacterial pili can be described as
answer
specialized fimbriae.
question
the following statements concerning the endosymbiotic theory are true
answer
The cristae of mitochondria evolved from the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes. . Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA and ribosomes. The endosymbiotic theory is not universally accepted. Mitochondria and chloroplasts can divide independently of the cell.
question
Which of the following molecules is shared by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms?
answer
N-acetylmuramic acid
question
Amoxicillin is an antibiotic that inhibits the formation of peptide cross-links. Amoxicillin, therefore, would most likely inhibit the growth of __________.
answer
both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms
question
Porins are present in ______________bacteria because, in these organisms, molecules entering the cell must pass through an extra layer of ___________.
answer
Gram-negative; membrane
question
Bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma are distinguished from other bacterial cells by
answer
the absence of a cell wall
question
Why is no energy required in passive transport?
answer
The concentration gradient drives the movement
question
Once equilibrium is reached,
answer
molecules move, but there is no net movement in a particular direction.
question
Which of the following would not move freely across the cytoplasmic membrane?
answer
Positively charged hydrogen ions Small alcohols Correct
question
the following are component of eukaryotic cell walls
answer
silicates cellulose chitin
question
the movement of proteins through the endomembrane system
answer
Rough ER -->Vesicle from ER --> Golgi Apparatus -->Vesicle from golgi -->Plasma membrane
question
The hami of some archaea are used for which of the following processes?
answer
attachment
question
Which of the following molecules would be blocked by a cell membrane?
answer
Ions
question
Hydrophobic molecules would enter a cell
answer
through integral transport proteins.
question
What is a hallmark of passive transport across cell membranes?
answer
It occurs along an electrochemical gradient, and may involve the use of transport proteins
question
A positively charged sodium ion
answer
would require the use of integral protein channels to pass through a cell membrane
question
the following statements regarding active transport
answer
It requires ATP. It requires the use of a transport protein.
question
the following statements concerning centrioles
answer
Centrioles are composed of microtubules. The structure of centrioles is similar to that of eukaryotic flagella and cilia. Centrioles are found in a region of the cell called the centrosome. Centrioles are believed to play a role in cellular processes such as mitosis and cytokinesis
question
the following statements concerning pili
answer
Pili are longer than fimbriae and flagella
question
Lipid __________ is a part of the Gram-negative cell wall that can produce fever, inflammation, and shock when it is released into the bloodstream. (Be sure to use capital letters.)
answer
A
question
A periplasmic space is found in which of the following?
answer
Gram-negative cells only
question
Cytoplasmic membranes of __________ are composed of phospholipids.
answer
both bacteria and eukaryotes
question
If a eukaryotic cell suffers damage to its mitochondria, which of the following processes of life would be most immediately affected?
answer
metabolism
question
function of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton
answer
gives shape to the cell aids in contraction of the cell performs endocytosis anchors organelles
question
the following statements concerning prokaryotic flagella
answer
Treponema is an example of a bacterium that has an endoflagellum. A "run" results from counterclockwise movement of the flagellum. . Prokaryotic flagella can rotate 360 degrees. Prokaryotic flagella are anchored to the cell wall by means of the basal body.
question
Lipid A is also known as
answer
endotoxin.
question
The filament and basal body are associated with which of the following external structures found in some bacterial cells?
answer
flagella
question
The cell walls of __________ contain peptidoglycan.
answer
bacteria
question
When the nurse practitioner looked into Nadia's throat, she saw white spots on the tonsils. These were white blood cells attempting to fight off the infection. Which of the following statements explains a key difference between Nadia's white blood cells and the Streptococcus pyogenes infecting her throat?
answer
Nadia's white blood cells have a nucleus while the Streptococcus pyogenes do not Nadia's white blood cells are eukaryotic, while the Streptococcus pyogenes are prokaryotic. The distinctive feature of prokaryotic cells is that they do not have a nucleus.
question
function of the Streptococcus pyogenes cytoplasmic membrane?
answer
endocytosis This is a function of eukaryotic cytoplasmic membranes and is not found in bacterial membranes.
question
Nadia has an infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, which has a Gram-positive cell wall. What distinguishes Gram-positive bacterial cell walls from Gram-negative bacteria cell walls?
answer
the presence of teichoic acid Teichoic acid is unique to Gram-positive organisms and anchors the peptidoglycan layer to the cell membrane.
question
the following statements concerning osmosis
answer
Cells placed in hypotonic solutions will gain water. Osmosis requires a selectively permeable membrane. Crenation results when cells are placed in a hypertonic solution. Osmosis stops when the system reaches equilibrium.
question
Cells placed in hypotonic solutions will gain water. Osmosis requires a selectively permeable membrane. During osmosis, water crosses to the side of the membrane with a lower solute concentration. Crenation results when cells are placed in a hypertonic solution. Osmosis stops when the system reaches equilibrium.
answer
Golgi body
question
component of bacterial cell walls
answer
tetrapeptide mycolic acid peptidoglycan lipoteichoic acids Correct
question
________ are fibrous structures some archaea use for attachment to surfaces.
answer
Hami
question
The archaea are similar to bacteria in all of the following ways
answer
The archaea are similar to bacteria in all of the following ways
question
the following have external structures containing a periplasmic space
answer
Gram-negative bacteria
question
Which of the following scenarios is an example of bacterial motility?
answer
A bacterium moving towards a food source
question
Axial filaments are found on
answer
spirochetes.
question
the following statements concerning the characteristics of life is
answer
viruses have some, but not all, of the characteristics of living things. living things store metabolic energy in the form of chemicals such as ATP. reproduction can occur asexually or sexually in living things. organisms may not exhibit all of the characteristics of life at all times.
question
Where is the genetic information of the cell stored?
answer
nucleus DNA is the genetic information of the cell, and it is stored in the nucleus.
question
The structural framework in a cell is the
answer
cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton is the structural framework in a cell ("cyto" refers to cell and "skeleton" refers to a structural framework).
question
Where in a cell is ATP made?
answer
mitochondria
question
What carries instructions for making proteins from the nucleus into the cytoplasm?
answer
mRNA The "m" in mRNA stands for "messenger"; mRNA is the messenger that carries genetic instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
question
One of the ways smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) differs from rough endoplasmic reticulum is that rough ER is covered by
answer
ribosomes. Ribosomes dock on the rough ER, and proteins are completed inside the rough ER.
question
Which of the following is part of the endomembrane system?
answer
Golgi apparatus The endomembrane system includes the ER, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vesicles. It manufactures, processes, and transports lipids and proteins. The Golgi apparatus processes and packages proteins.
question
Which of the following organelles breaks down worn-out organelles
answer
ysosomes Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes and break down worn-out organelles.
question
Where are lipids made in the cell?
answer
smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER
question
What structure acts as a selective barrier, regulating the traffic of materials into and out of the cell?
answer
plasma membrane The plasma membrane surrounds the cell and regulates the movement of materials into and out of the cell.
question
A bacterial cell stains positive with the acid-fast stain.
answer
has a cell wall that contains waxy lipids. It will be difficult to stain this cell with the Gram stain. It may be a member of the genus Mycobacterium.
question
A bacterial cell is placed in distilled water. Which of the following will happen?
answer
The cell will gain water
question
The process of bringing a solid substance into the cell is known as ____________________.
answer
phagocytosis
question
Archaeal flagella __________.
answer
rotate as bacterial flagella do
question
Bacterial protein synthesis can begin before the reading of the gene is complete.
answer
True
question
Chloroplasts use light energy to produce ATP and carbohydrates.
answer
True
question
the following would be found in the cytoplasm of a bacterial cell
answer
porins
question
(n) ________ is a carrier protein that transports two substances in the same direction across a membrane.
answer
symport
question
Archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes
answer
__________ may have flagella.
question
Which of the following processes can be either specific or nonspecific depending upon the particular molecules that are transported
answer
facilitated diffusion
question
Which of the following chemical substances contributes to the unique characteristics of acid-fast bacteria
answer
mycolic acid
question
the following molecules would be expected to cross the cytoplasmic membrane rapidly and without the use of transport proteins?
answer
small hydrophobic molecules
question
Paired structures composed of tubulin that play a role in eukaryotic mitosis are known as ________. centrioles
answer
tubulin
question
A higher concentration of solutes corresponds to a ________ (higher/lower) concentration of water in a given solution. lower
answer
lower
question
the following bacterial cell structures plays an important role in the creation of biofilms?
answer
both fimbriae and glycocalyces
question
Which of the following is unique to archaea?
answer
hami
question
Some members of the __________ have hami.
answer
archaea
question
When cells are placed in a hypertonic solution, they lose water and shrivel. This process is called
answer
crenation.
question
What makes phospholipid membranes good at keeping some molecules out, and allowing others to freely pass?
answer
They have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions.
question
Integral proteins are involved in
answer
transport function
question
How does water enter and exit a cell?
answer
By simple diffusion or by use of an integral transport protein
question
Which of the active transport types employs diffusion?
answer
symport
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question
A bacterial cell possesses a glycocalyx.
answer
It will be able to attach to surfaces. It will be less likely to dry out. It will be more pathogenic
question
Eukaryotic cells use a process known as __________ to obtain liquids from their environment. Eukaryotic cells use a process known as __________ to obtain liquids from their environment.
answer
pinocytosis
question
Lipid-soluble molecules would be expected to cross the cytoplasmic membrane by which of the following processes
answer
diffusion
question
ATP is expended in which of the following processes?
answer
both active transport and group translocation
question
component of bacterial flagella?
answer
flagellin basal body hook filament
question
characteristic of a eukaryotic cell
answer
has a nuclear envelope more complex than prokaryotes has membrane-bound organelles
question
The presence of a(n) ________ enables bacterial and plant cells to resist the effects of hypotonic solutions
answer
cell wall
question
Tumbles occur when
answer
the flagella rotate clockwise
question
Which of the following types of bacterial cells would have only a single flagellum?
answer
Monotrichous
question
Peritrichous bacteria make a run when
answer
the flagella turn counterclockwise and become bundled
question
Which of the following types of bacterial cells would have flagella located at only one end of the cell?
answer
Lophotrichous and monotrichous
question
Eukaryotic ribosomes are composed of
answer
60S and 40S subunits
question
Formation of a biofilm may contribute to bacteria's ability
answer
to cause disease.
question
Why is ATP necessary for active transport?
answer
ATP provides energy to transfer material against its concentration gradient
question
Which type of active transport protein moves two molecules into the cell at the same time?
answer
Which type of active transport protein moves two molecules into the cell at the same time?
question
Which transport protein employs transporters that move molecules only in one direction?
answer
Uniport and Symport
question
Which type of active transport protein uses one protein to pump two different molecules?
answer
Antiport and Symport
question
Bacteria
answer
__________ may have pili.
question
The accumulation of glucose 6-phosphate inside a bacterial cell via phosphorylation of glucose is an example of
answer
group translocation
question
Which of the following processes requires a carrier protein?
answer
both facilitated diffusion and active transport
question
Which of the following statements concerning endocytosis and exocytosis is CORRECT?
answer
Endocytosis produces a structure called a food vesicle.
question
Which of the following is classified as a membranous organelle of eukaryotic cells?
answer
endoplasmic reticulum
question
Using a microscope, you observe an amoeba moving toward a food source. This is an example of
answer
responsiveness
question
A(n) ________ is a type of glycocalyx that is firmly attached to the cell.
answer
capsule
question
Short, hairlike structures used only by eukaryotic cells for movement are called
answer
cilia
question
Chloroplasts differ from mitochondria in that they have
answer
light-harvesting pigments.
question
Bacterial pili can be described as
answer
specialized fimbriae.
question
the following statements concerning the endosymbiotic theory are true
answer
The cristae of mitochondria evolved from the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes. . Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA and ribosomes. The endosymbiotic theory is not universally accepted. Mitochondria and chloroplasts can divide independently of the cell.
question
Which of the following molecules is shared by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms?
answer
N-acetylmuramic acid
question
Amoxicillin is an antibiotic that inhibits the formation of peptide cross-links. Amoxicillin, therefore, would most likely inhibit the growth of __________.
answer
both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms
question
Porins are present in ______________bacteria because, in these organisms, molecules entering the cell must pass through an extra layer of ___________.
answer
Gram-negative; membrane
question
Bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma are distinguished from other bacterial cells by
answer
the absence of a cell wall
question
Why is no energy required in passive transport?
answer
The concentration gradient drives the movement
question
Once equilibrium is reached,
answer
molecules move, but there is no net movement in a particular direction.
question
Which of the following would not move freely across the cytoplasmic membrane?
answer
Positively charged hydrogen ions Small alcohols Correct
question
the following are component of eukaryotic cell walls
answer
silicates cellulose chitin
question
the movement of proteins through the endomembrane system
answer
Rough ER -->Vesicle from ER --> Golgi Apparatus -->Vesicle from golgi -->Plasma membrane
question
The hami of some archaea are used for which of the following processes?
answer
attachment
question
Which of the following molecules would be blocked by a cell membrane?
answer
Ions
question
Hydrophobic molecules would enter a cell
answer
through integral transport proteins.
question
What is a hallmark of passive transport across cell membranes?
answer
It occurs along an electrochemical gradient, and may involve the use of transport proteins
question
A positively charged sodium ion
answer
would require the use of integral protein channels to pass through a cell membrane
question
the following statements regarding active transport
answer
It requires ATP. It requires the use of a transport protein.
question
the following statements concerning centrioles
answer
Centrioles are composed of microtubules. The structure of centrioles is similar to that of eukaryotic flagella and cilia. Centrioles are found in a region of the cell called the centrosome. Centrioles are believed to play a role in cellular processes such as mitosis and cytokinesis
question
the following statements concerning pili
answer
Pili are longer than fimbriae and flagella
question
Lipid __________ is a part of the Gram-negative cell wall that can produce fever, inflammation, and shock when it is released into the bloodstream. (Be sure to use capital letters.)
answer
A
question
A periplasmic space is found in which of the following?
answer
Gram-negative cells only
question
Cytoplasmic membranes of __________ are composed of phospholipids.
answer
both bacteria and eukaryotes
question
If a eukaryotic cell suffers damage to its mitochondria, which of the following processes of life would be most immediately affected?
answer
metabolism
question
function of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton
answer
gives shape to the cell aids in contraction of the cell performs endocytosis anchors organelles
question
the following statements concerning prokaryotic flagella
answer
Treponema is an example of a bacterium that has an endoflagellum. A "run" results from counterclockwise movement of the flagellum. . Prokaryotic flagella can rotate 360 degrees. Prokaryotic flagella are anchored to the cell wall by means of the basal body.
question
Lipid A is also known as
answer
endotoxin.
question
The filament and basal body are associated with which of the following external structures found in some bacterial cells?
answer
flagella
question
The cell walls of __________ contain peptidoglycan.
answer
bacteria
question
When the nurse practitioner looked into Nadia's throat, she saw white spots on the tonsils. These were white blood cells attempting to fight off the infection. Which of the following statements explains a key difference between Nadia's white blood cells and the Streptococcus pyogenes infecting her throat?
answer
Nadia's white blood cells have a nucleus while the Streptococcus pyogenes do not Nadia's white blood cells are eukaryotic, while the Streptococcus pyogenes are prokaryotic. The distinctive feature of prokaryotic cells is that they do not have a nucleus.
question
function of the Streptococcus pyogenes cytoplasmic membrane?
answer
endocytosis This is a function of eukaryotic cytoplasmic membranes and is not found in bacterial membranes.
question
Nadia has an infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, which has a Gram-positive cell wall. What distinguishes Gram-positive bacterial cell walls from Gram-negative bacteria cell walls?
answer
the presence of teichoic acid Teichoic acid is unique to Gram-positive organisms and anchors the peptidoglycan layer to the cell membrane.
question
the following statements concerning osmosis
answer
Cells placed in hypotonic solutions will gain water. Osmosis requires a selectively permeable membrane. Crenation results when cells are placed in a hypertonic solution. Osmosis stops when the system reaches equilibrium.
question
Cells placed in hypotonic solutions will gain water. Osmosis requires a selectively permeable membrane. During osmosis, water crosses to the side of the membrane with a lower solute concentration. Crenation results when cells are placed in a hypertonic solution. Osmosis stops when the system reaches equilibrium.
answer
Golgi body
question
component of bacterial cell walls
answer
tetrapeptide mycolic acid peptidoglycan lipoteichoic acids Correct
question
________ are fibrous structures some archaea use for attachment to surfaces.
answer
Hami
question
The archaea are similar to bacteria in all of the following ways
answer
The archaea are similar to bacteria in all of the following ways
question
the following have external structures containing a periplasmic space
answer
Gram-negative bacteria
question
Which of the following scenarios is an example of bacterial motility?
answer
A bacterium moving towards a food source
question
Axial filaments are found on
answer
spirochetes.
question
the following statements concerning the characteristics of life is
answer
viruses have some, but not all, of the characteristics of living things. living things store metabolic energy in the form of chemicals such as ATP. reproduction can occur asexually or sexually in living things. organisms may not exhibit all of the characteristics of life at all times.
question
Where is the genetic information of the cell stored?
answer
nucleus DNA is the genetic information of the cell, and it is stored in the nucleus.
question
The structural framework in a cell is the
answer
cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton is the structural framework in a cell ("cyto" refers to cell and "skeleton" refers to a structural framework).
question
Where in a cell is ATP made?
answer
mitochondria
question
What carries instructions for making proteins from the nucleus into the cytoplasm?
answer
mRNA The "m" in mRNA stands for "messenger"; mRNA is the messenger that carries genetic instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
question
One of the ways smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) differs from rough endoplasmic reticulum is that rough ER is covered by
answer
ribosomes. Ribosomes dock on the rough ER, and proteins are completed inside the rough ER.
question
Which of the following is part of the endomembrane system?
answer
Golgi apparatus The endomembrane system includes the ER, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vesicles. It manufactures, processes, and transports lipids and proteins. The Golgi apparatus processes and packages proteins.
question
Which of the following organelles breaks down worn-out organelles
answer
ysosomes Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes and break down worn-out organelles.
question
Where are lipids made in the cell?
answer
smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER
question
What structure acts as a selective barrier, regulating the traffic of materials into and out of the cell?
answer
plasma membrane The plasma membrane surrounds the cell and regulates the movement of materials into and out of the cell.
question
A bacterial cell stains positive with the acid-fast stain.
answer
has a cell wall that contains waxy lipids. It will be difficult to stain this cell with the Gram stain. It may be a member of the genus Mycobacterium.
question
A bacterial cell is placed in distilled water. Which of the following will happen?
answer
The cell will gain water
question
The process of bringing a solid substance into the cell is known as ____________________.
answer
phagocytosis
question
Archaeal flagella __________.
answer
rotate as bacterial flagella do
question
Bacterial protein synthesis can begin before the reading of the gene is complete.
answer
True
question
Chloroplasts use light energy to produce ATP and carbohydrates.
answer
True
question
the following would be found in the cytoplasm of a bacterial cell
answer
porins
question
(n) ________ is a carrier protein that transports two substances in the same direction across a membrane.
answer
symport
question
Archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes
answer
__________ may have flagella.
question
Which of the following processes can be either specific or nonspecific depending upon the particular molecules that are transported
answer
facilitated diffusion
question
Which of the following chemical substances contributes to the unique characteristics of acid-fast bacteria
answer
mycolic acid
question
the following molecules would be expected to cross the cytoplasmic membrane rapidly and without the use of transport proteins?
answer
small hydrophobic molecules
question
Paired structures composed of tubulin that play a role in eukaryotic mitosis are known as ________. centrioles
answer
tubulin
question
A higher concentration of solutes corresponds to a ________ (higher/lower) concentration of water in a given solution. lower
answer
lower
question
the following bacterial cell structures plays an important role in the creation of biofilms?
answer
both fimbriae and glycocalyces
question
Which of the following is unique to archaea?
answer
hami
question
Some members of the __________ have hami.
answer
archaea
question
When cells are placed in a hypertonic solution, they lose water and shrivel. This process is called
answer
crenation.
question
What makes phospholipid membranes good at keeping some molecules out, and allowing others to freely pass?
answer
They have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions.
question
Integral proteins are involved in
answer
transport function
question
How does water enter and exit a cell?
answer
By simple diffusion or by use of an integral transport protein
question
Which of the active transport types employs diffusion?
answer
symport
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