Chapter 3 – 253 Midterm 3

motivation is
the direction and intensity of effort
3 approaches to motivation
1. trait-centred view
2. situation-centred view
3. interactional view
describe the train-centred view of motivation
-disadvantage
motivation is mainly due to a persons characteristics (personality, needs, and goals)
-environment not considered
describe the situational-centred view
motivation is mainly due to a situation
describe the interactional view
motivation is due to both the situation and the person’s personality, needs and goals
sorrentino and Shepard – swimmers individual vs. relay found that
-approval-oreinted swimmers swam faster in relay
-rejection threatened swimmers swam faster alone than in the relay
why do kids participate
because its fun and challenging
why do adults participate
for health reasons, leadership style and exercise program
male college vs female college kids are intrinsic or extrinsically motivated
male = intrinsic
female = extrinsic
what is the self-determination theory
people need to satisfy 3 needs – competence, autonomy and connectedness
female vs male middle schoolers why they participate
boys= competition
girls= social aspect
US vs Karen motivation differences
US are more intrinsically motivated (competition)
US vs Chinese vs Chinese American motivation differences
US – competitive
Chinese – social affiliation and wellness
Chinese amor- travel, fun, and equip. use
3 guidlines to improving awareness why people participate
1. observe
2. informally talk
3. directly ask
sport vs exercise types of motivation
sport – intrinsic
exercise – extrinsic
2 motives that influence participation and performance
1. achievement motivation
2. competitiveness
what type of motive is connected to self evaluation
achievement motivation
describe achievement motivation
a persons efforts to master a task, achieve excellence and overcome obstacles
what motive is related to social evaluation and sport
competitiveness
what is ” a disposition to strive for satisfaction when making comparisons with some standard of excellence in the presence of evaluating others
competitiveness
what theory is described as an interactional view that considers both personal and situation factors that impact predictions of behaviour and motivation
need achievement theory
what are the 4 components of the need achievement theory
1. personality factors
2. situational factors
3. resultant tendencies
4. emotional reactions
what are the two parts of the personality factor of the need achievement theory
-achieve success and avoid failure
what are the two parts of the situational factors
-probably of success and incentive value of success
low achievers are known as having
high motivation to avoid failure and low motivation to achieve success
-prefer challenging task that are either too hard they will fail or so easy they know they will succeed
high achievers are known as having
high motivation to achieve success and low motivation to avoid failure
– perform better in evaluative situations
resultant tendencies element of the need achievement theory is
-considers an individuals achievement motivation is relation to situational factors
emotional reactions element of the need achievement theory
either pride or shame is experienced
what theory explains their success or failures
attribution theory
3 elements of the attribution theory and expand
-stability – success or failure is stable or unstable
-locus of causality – external or internal (pride or shame)
-locus of control – is controlled or un (motivation)
external or internal factors are related to
emotional pride or shame
stability is related to
success
control is related to
motivation
what are attributions
reasons performers perceive success or failure
how people explain their performance affects their ___ and ___ which influence their future achievement motivation
expectations and emotional reactions
what are the 3 factors to the Achievement goal theory
1. achievement goals
2. perceived ability
3. achievement behaviour
outcome-goal orientation
focus on comparing oneself to others and defeating them
task-goal orientation
focus on comparing one self to own past experiences
when someone perceives they have more control they become more
motivated
social-goal orientation
judge competence in terms of affiliation and being liked others
3 ways to judge competence
1. outcome-goal orientation
2. task-goal orientation
3.social-goal orientation
entity view
outcome-goal focus – ability is fixed and can’t be changed through effort
incremental focus
task-goal focus – ability can be changed through hard work and effort
approach vs. avoidance achievement goals
more focus on approach goals – which focus on achieving competence not avoiding incompetence
Competence Motivation theory
people are motivated to feel competence
– peoples feelings of control affect feelings of competence which then influences motivation
youth soccer players and coaches (Wong and Bridges 1995) found that trait anxiety and coaching behaviours predicted
competence and control which also predicted motivation levels
perceptions of competence and control are determinants of
achievement
what are the 3 stage of achievement motivation and comptiveness
1. autonomous competence stage
2. social compassion stage
3. integrated stage
autonomous competence stage
less than 4 – when you are concerned only on mastery and self-testing
social compassion stage
at 5 years – when you are concerned about comparing performance with others
integrated stage
no typical age – knowing when to compare with others and when to be concerned only about mastery and self-testing
study – people who receive more task-oriented feedback had more motivational climate to be more
task oriented (mastery)
when someone is in a mastery task climate they are more focused on than outcome-motivational climates
effort and challenging tasks
replace lack of ability attributions with
lack of effort attributions
how to scholarships affect intersect motivation
decrease
do democratic or autocratic coaches have better intrinsic motivation
democratic
rec. or competitive environments have better intrinsic motivation
recreational
if you want to increase intrinsic motivation the key is making rewards more
informational
3 factors that help attain flow state
optimal arousal
confidence
focused attention