Chapter 3 – 253 Midterm 3

motivation is
the direction and intensity of effort

3 approaches to motivation
1. trait-centred view
2. situation-centred view
3. interactional view

describe the train-centred view of motivation
-disadvantage
motivation is mainly due to a persons characteristics (personality, needs, and goals)
-environment not considered

describe the situational-centred view
motivation is mainly due to a situation

describe the interactional view
motivation is due to both the situation and the person’s personality, needs and goals

sorrentino and Shepard – swimmers individual vs. relay found that
-approval-oreinted swimmers swam faster in relay
-rejection threatened swimmers swam faster alone than in the relay

why do kids participate
because its fun and challenging

why do adults participate
for health reasons, leadership style and exercise program

male college vs female college kids are intrinsic or extrinsically motivated
male = intrinsic
female = extrinsic

what is the self-determination theory
people need to satisfy 3 needs – competence, autonomy and connectedness

female vs male middle schoolers why they participate
boys= competition
girls= social aspect

US vs Karen motivation differences
US are more intrinsically motivated (competition)

US vs Chinese vs Chinese American motivation differences
US – competitive
Chinese – social affiliation and wellness
Chinese amor- travel, fun, and equip. use

3 guidlines to improving awareness why people participate
1. observe
2. informally talk
3. directly ask

sport vs exercise types of motivation
sport – intrinsic
exercise – extrinsic

2 motives that influence participation and performance
1. achievement motivation
2. competitiveness

what type of motive is connected to self evaluation
achievement motivation

describe achievement motivation
a persons efforts to master a task, achieve excellence and overcome obstacles

what motive is related to social evaluation and sport
competitiveness

what is ” a disposition to strive for satisfaction when making comparisons with some standard of excellence in the presence of evaluating others
competitiveness

what theory is described as an interactional view that considers both personal and situation factors that impact predictions of behaviour and motivation
need achievement theory

what are the 4 components of the need achievement theory
1. personality factors
2. situational factors
3. resultant tendencies
4. emotional reactions

what are the two parts of the personality factor of the need achievement theory
-achieve success and avoid failure

what are the two parts of the situational factors
-probably of success and incentive value of success

low achievers are known as having
high motivation to avoid failure and low motivation to achieve success
-prefer challenging task that are either too hard they will fail or so easy they know they will succeed

high achievers are known as having
high motivation to achieve success and low motivation to avoid failure
– perform better in evaluative situations

resultant tendencies element of the need achievement theory is
-considers an individuals achievement motivation is relation to situational factors

emotional reactions element of the need achievement theory
either pride or shame is experienced

what theory explains their success or failures
attribution theory

3 elements of the attribution theory and expand
-stability – success or failure is stable or unstable
-locus of causality – external or internal (pride or shame)
-locus of control – is controlled or un (motivation)

external or internal factors are related to
emotional pride or shame

stability is related to
success

control is related to
motivation

what are attributions
reasons performers perceive success or failure

how people explain their performance affects their ___ and ___ which influence their future achievement motivation
expectations and emotional reactions

what are the 3 factors to the Achievement goal theory
1. achievement goals
2. perceived ability
3. achievement behaviour

outcome-goal orientation
focus on comparing oneself to others and defeating them

task-goal orientation
focus on comparing one self to own past experiences

when someone perceives they have more control they become more
motivated

social-goal orientation
judge competence in terms of affiliation and being liked others

3 ways to judge competence
1. outcome-goal orientation
2. task-goal orientation
3.social-goal orientation

entity view
outcome-goal focus – ability is fixed and can’t be changed through effort

incremental focus
task-goal focus – ability can be changed through hard work and effort

approach vs. avoidance achievement goals
more focus on approach goals – which focus on achieving competence not avoiding incompetence

Competence Motivation theory
people are motivated to feel competence
– peoples feelings of control affect feelings of competence which then influences motivation

youth soccer players and coaches (Wong and Bridges 1995) found that trait anxiety and coaching behaviours predicted
competence and control which also predicted motivation levels

perceptions of competence and control are determinants of
achievement

what are the 3 stage of achievement motivation and comptiveness
1. autonomous competence stage
2. social compassion stage
3. integrated stage

autonomous competence stage
less than 4 – when you are concerned only on mastery and self-testing

social compassion stage
at 5 years – when you are concerned about comparing performance with others

integrated stage
no typical age – knowing when to compare with others and when to be concerned only about mastery and self-testing

study – people who receive more task-oriented feedback had more motivational climate to be more
task oriented (mastery)

when someone is in a mastery task climate they are more focused on than outcome-motivational climates
effort and challenging tasks

replace lack of ability attributions with
lack of effort attributions

how to scholarships affect intersect motivation
decrease

do democratic or autocratic coaches have better intrinsic motivation
democratic

rec. or competitive environments have better intrinsic motivation
recreational

if you want to increase intrinsic motivation the key is making rewards more
informational

3 factors that help attain flow state
optimal arousal
confidence
focused attention

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