chapter 26 apush Essay

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Buffalo Soldiers
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nickname for African American soldiers who fought in the wars in the palins against Native Americans in the 1870’s
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George Armstrong Custer
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Former General during the Civil War, he set out in 1874 with his Seventh Cavalry to return the Plains Indians to the Sioux reservation. Defeated by an army that outnumbered his men 10 to 1.
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Battle of the Little Bighorn
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(1876) The government ordered all Sioux to leave their territory to put a stop to raids. This broke out into a battle that took place near the Little Bighorn River.
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Helen Hunt Jackson
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A writer. Author of the 1881 book A Century of Dishonor. The book exposed the U.S. governments many broken promises to the Native Americans. For example the government wanted Native Americans to assimilate, i.e. give up their beliefs and ways of life, that way to become part of the white culture.
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Battle of Wounded Knee
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The Wounded Knee Massacre, also known as The Battle at Wounded Knee Creek, was the last major armed conflict between the Lakota Sioux and the United States, subsequently described as a “massacre” by General Nelson A. Miles in a letter to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
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Dawes Severalty Act of 1887
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dissolved many tribes as legal entities, wiped out tribal ownership of land, and set up individual Indian family heads with 160 free acres. If the Indians behaved like “good white settlers” then they would get full title to their holdings as well as citizenship. The Dawes Act attempted to assimilate the Indians with the white men. The Dawes Act remained the basis of the government’s official Indian policy until the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934.
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Long Drive
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Refers to the overland transport of cattle by the cowboy over the three month period. Cattle were sold to settlers and Native Americans.
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Homestead Act of 1862
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Act that allowed a settler to acquire as much as 160 acres of land by living on it for 5 years, improving it, and paying a nominal fee of about $30 – instead of public land being sold primarily for revenue, it was now being given away to encourage a rapid filling of empty spaces and to provide a stimulus to the family farm, turned out to be a cruel hoax because the land given to the settlers usually had terrible soil and the weather included no precipitation, many farms were repo’d or failed until “dry farming” took root on the plains , then wheat, then massive irrigation projects
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Frederick Jackson Turner / Turner Thesis
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“The Significance of the Frontier in American History” -1893 Americans had developed a unique national identity as a result of their experience of the west Sectional contests, the presence of Indians, the rudeness of nature etc imparted onto American settlers a particular character: Democratic, pragmatic, forward-looking, individualistic (not all true, americans weren’t all too nice, and a lot of struggling)
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Bonanza Farms
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large farms that came to dominate agricultural life in much of the West in the late 1800s; instead of plots farmed by yeoman farmers, large amounts of machinery were used, and workers were hired laborers, often performing only specific tasks(similar to work in a factory).
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The Grange
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It was a farmers’ movement involving the affiliation of local farmers into area “granges” to work for their political and economic advantages. The official name of the National Grange is the Patrons of Husbandry the Granger movement was successful in regulating the railroads and grain warehouses
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Greenback Labor Party
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Political party that farmers sought refuge in at first, combined inflationary appeal of earlier Greenabackers w/ program for improving labor
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The Farmers’ Alliance
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Farmers formed this in Texas in the late 1870s in order to break the grip of the railroads and manufacturers through cooperative buying and selling.The Alliance weakened itself by excluding blacks and landless tenant farmers.
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The Populists
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Out of the Farmers’ Alliances the People’s Partyemerged.It called for nationalizing the railroads, telephones, and telegraph; instituting a graduated income tax; and creating a new federal subtreasury – ascheme to provide farmers with loans for crops stored in government-owned warehouses. They also wanted the free and unlimited coinage of silver.
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Pullman Strike of 1894
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Workers rebelled because the Pullman Palace Car Company cut wages by 1/3 and the American Federation of Labor refused to support the strikers. Military action was needed in order to keep mail delivery on track.
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Eugene V. Debs
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Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
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William McKinley
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25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism. Is assassinated by an anarchist
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Marcus Alonzo Hanna
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led the Republican presidential campaign. Hanna felt that the prime function of government was to aid business.
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William Jennings Bryant
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He delivered an impassioned address to the assembled delegates while the party was trying to settle on a chandidate at the Democtratic convention.
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Dingley Tariff Bill
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Established average rates at 46.5% after over 850 amendments were added. This was much higher than the Wilson-Gorman Act of 1894 and the McKinley Act in some categories

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