Chapter 22 – Alcohols

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
What is the characteristic functional group for alcohols and phenols.
hydroxyl
What is the formula for hydroxyl?
-OH
An alcohol is ____.
aliphatic
General formula for alcohol.
ROH
Write the formula for methanol.
CH3OH
What is the class of methanol?
primary
Write the formula for ethanol.
CH3CH2OH
What is the common name for methanol?
methyl alcohol
What is the common name for ethanol?
ethyl alcohol
What is the class of ethanol?
primary
Write the formula for 1-propanol.
CH3CH2CH2OH
What is the common name for 1-propanol?
n-propyl alcohol
What is the class of 1-propanol?
primary
Write the formula for 1-butanol.
CH3CH2CH2CH2OH
What is the common name for 1-butanol?
n-butyl alcohol
What is the class of 1-butanol?
primary
What is the formula for 1-pentanol?
CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2OH
What is the common name for 1-pentanol?
n-pentyl alcohol
What is the class of 1-pentanol?
primary
Write the formula for 2-methyl-1-propanol.
CH3CH(-CH3)CH2OH
What is the common name for 2-methyl-1-propanol?
isobutyl alcohol
What is the class of 2-methyl-1-propanol?
primary
Write the formula for 2-propanol.
CH3CH(-OH)CH3
What is the common name for 2-propanol?
isopropyl alcohol
What is the class of 2-propanol?
secondary
Write the formula for 2-butanol.
CH3CH2CH(-OH)CH3
What is the common name for 2-butanol?
sec-butyl alcohol
What is the class of 2-butanol?
secondary
Write the formula for 1,2-ethanediol.
OHCH2CH2OH
What is the common name of 1,2-ethanediol?
ethylene glycol
Write the formula for 1,2,3-propanetriol.
OHCH2CH(-OH)CH2OH
What are the two common names for 1,2,3-propanetriol?
glycerol and glycerine
What is the class of 1,2-ethanediol?
dihydroxy
What is the class of 1,2,3-propanetrioll?
trihydroxy
Name the compound: CH3CH(-OH)CH3
2-propanol
Name the compound: CH3CH(-CH3)CH2CH2OH
3-methyl-1-butanol
Name the compound: HOCH2CH2OH
1,2-ethanediol
Name the compound: CH3CH2(CH3-)C(-CH3)CH2CH(-OH)CH2CH3
5,5-dimethyl-3-heptanol
-OH is a ____ hydroxyl group.
polar
-OH group can undergo ____ bonding.
hydrogen
Because of hydrogen bonding, alcohols have a ____ boiling point compared to alkanes.
increased
Alcohols with three carbon atoms or fewer are ____ soluble in water.
infinitely
Alcohols with four or more carbon atoms have ____ solubility in water.
limited
Recall: all hydrocarbons are ____ in water.
insoluble
Alcohols are ____ to form aldehydes, ketones, or carboxylic acids.
oxidized
What is the general symbol for oxidizing agents in reactions?
[O]
Alcohols undergo ____ to form an oxonium atom.
protonation
Alcohols undergo ____ to form an alkoxide ion.
deprotonation
Alcohols undergo ____ to form aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids.
oxidation
Alcohols undergo ____ to form alkenes and ethers.
dehydration
Alcohols undergo ____ to form carboxylic esters.
esterification
Primary alcohols oxidize to form ____.
aldehydes
Aldehydes oxidize to form ____.
carboxylic acids
Secondary alcohols oxidize to form ____.
ketones
True or false: tertiary alcohols do NOT oxidize under these conditions?
true
A branched-chain alcohol will have a ____ boiling point than the corresponding straight-chain alcohol.
lower
Alcohols with ____ carbon atoms or fewer are infinitely soluble in water.
three
Dehydration of alcohols forms alkenes and ____.
esters
Esterification of acohols form ____.
carboxylic esters
Oxidation forms aldehydes, ____, and carboxylic acid.
ketones
Protonation forms an ____ ion.
oxonium
Primary alcohols form ____ when oxidized.
aldehydes
Secondary alcohols form ____ when oxidized.
ketones
Tertiary alcohols do ____ oxidize under these conditions.
not
Ethanol is oxidized in the liver to form ____.
ethanal
Ethanal is also known as ____.
acetaldehyde
Ethanal is a ____.
aldehyde
Ethanol can be prepared on an industrial scale by ____.
fermentation

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