Chapter 21

Which of these is not a function of the respiratory system?
transport RBCs (red blood cells) to the tissues
Which of these structures is located outside the upper respiratory system?
larynx
Particulate matter in the inhaled air is trapped by the __________.
epithelial mucus
Air leaving the respiratory system from the nasal cavity passes last through the __________.
external nares
As air moves from the nasal cavity to the glottis it passes through the pharynx in this order, __________.
nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
The “Adam’s apple” is part of the __________.
the thyroid cartilage
The posterior tracheal wall contacts the __________.
esophagus
If the production of surfactant by type II alveolar cells (septal cells) is inadequate, which of these changes is expected?
a. increased inspiratory effort
b. alveolar collapse
c. respiratory distress syndrome
d. All of these changes can be expected if the production of surfactant is inadequate.
d. All of these changes can be expected if the production of surfactant is inadequate.
The correct arrangement of gas exchange structures from largest to smallest is __________.
respiratory bronchiole; alveolar duct; alveolar sac; alveolus
Features visible on the surface of the lung include all of these except __________.
parietal pleura
The nasal cavity:
is part of the upper respiratory system.
Which type of epithelium lines the inferior portions of the pharynx?
stratified squamous epithelium
Which upper respiratory structure includes the portion of the pharynx between the hyoid bone and the entrance to the larynx and esophagus?
laryngopharynx
The nasal cavity opens into the nasopharynx through which structure?
internal nares
Which of the following is a cartilaginous structure that surrounds and protects the glottis?
larynx
Which structure(s) function(s) in the opening and closing of the glottis and the production of sound?
corniculate and arytenoid cartilages
Each terminal bronchiole supplies which singular structure?
pulmonary lobule
Choose the correct statement regarding the trachea or bronchi.
The right primary bronchus is larger in diameter than the left primary bronchus.
Which structure is located most superior at the hilum of the left lung?
pulmonary artery
During inhalation,
the diaphragm and rib muscles contract.
From which structures do oxygen molecules move from the lungs to the blood?
Alveoli
Which statement is correct?
In the blood, oxygen is bound to hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells.
After blood becomes oxygenated,
it returns to the heart, and is then pumped to body cells.
Hemoglobin
is a protein that can bind four molecules of oxygen
During inhalation:
pressure inside the lungs is less than pressure outside the body
Internal respiration:
is the absorption of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide by tissue cells
Regarding Boyle’s law, which condition, for a gas in a closed container and at a constant temperature, is correct?
If the volume of the gas is decreased, its pressure will increase.
Which of the following pulmonary characteristics is calculated by adding the vital capacity and the residual volume?
total lung capacity
The vital capacity is:
the maximum amount of air that one can move into or out of the lungs in a single respiratory cycle
During a single quiet respiratory cycle, inhaling more vigorously and exhaling more completely can increase which of the following?
tidal volume
External respiration includes all of these processes except __________.
release of carbon dioxide by tissue cells
All these muscles participate in inspiration except __________.
internal intercostals
Which of these does not contribute to vital capacity?
residual volume
The difference in partial pressure of carbon dioxide between venous and arterial blood is about __________.
5 mmHg
Which of these changes will decrease the effectiveness of gas exchange across the respiratory membrane?
increased thickness of the respiratory membrane
Which of these contributes to effective gas exchange?
All of these properties contribute to effective gas exchange.
If the hemoglobin molecules in a blood sample each had a single oxygen molecule bound to it on average, the saturation is __________.
25%
As blood flows through a capillary, the pH drops as carbon dioxide enters; this, in turn, leads the hemoglobin to release some of its oxygen. Are these two statements true or false?
Both statements are true.
Most oxygen is transported in the blood stream while it is __________.
bound to hemoglobin
The basic pattern of breathing is established by the __________ located in the __________.
dorsal respiratory group; medulla oblongata
Which class of sensory receptor can modify respiratory reflexes?
All of these sensory receptors can modify respiratory reflexes.
The respiratory centers are located in __________.
both the medulla oblongata and the pons
As a percentage of a young adult’s capacity, smokers lose 25% of their respiratory capacity by age 48; non-smokers don’t reach that level of loss until about age 75. Are these two statements true or false?
Both statements are true.
The respiratory system has very extensive connections with the __________ system.
cardiovascular
In order for the respiratory system to maintain homeostatic tissue levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide, it must coordinate constantly with the __________ system.
cardiovascular
Respiratory minute volume, VE:
is calculated by multiplying the respiratory rate, f, by the tidal volume, VT.
Which is true regarding the Bohr effect on the oxygen-hemoglobin saturation curve?
If the pH decreases, hemoglobin releases more oxygen.
Which characteristic is correct regarding an oxygen-hemoglobin saturation curve?
Where the slope is steep, a very small change in plasma PO2 will result in a large change in the amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin or released from oxyhemoglobin.
Most of the carbon dioxide that is absorbed by blood:
is converted to carbonic acid.
Emphysema:
occurs due to the destruction of alveolar surfaces and inadequate surface area for oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange.
Which is true regarding the compliance of the lungs?
The lower the compliance, the less easily air flows along the conducting passages.
Which is a structural or functional characteristic of the inflation reflex?
It inhibits respiratory muscles via the respiratory rhythmicity centers
Which statement regarding lung cancer is correct?
Since 1992, the incidence of lung cancer among women has been increasing.

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