chapter 2 study set

Blindness could result from damage to which cortex and lobe of the brain?
visual cortex in the occipital lobe
Paralysis of the left arm might be explained by a problem in the
motor cortex in the frontal lobe in the right hemisphere
Deafness can result from damage to the inner ear or damage to what area of the brain?
connections between the auditory nerve and the auditory cortex in the temporal lobe
According to the theory of evolution, why might we call some parts of the brain the old brain and some parts the new brain?
The old brain developed first according to evolution
which chemicals pass across the synaptic gap and increase the possibility the next neuron in the chain will fire?
Excitatory neurotransmitters
You eat some bad sushi and feel that you are slowly losing control over your muscles. The bacteria you ingested from the bad sushi most likely interferes with the use of
acetylcholine
The three major categories researches use to organize the entire brain are the
hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain
A spinal reflex differs from a normal sensory and motor reaction in that
in a spinal reflex, the spine moves the muscles in response as soon as the sensory information reaches the spin while the impulse must reach the brain before a response.
Antidepressant drugs like Prozac are often used to treat mood disorders. According to what you know about their functions, which neurotransmitter do these types of drugs try to affect?
serotonin
which sentence most likely describes neural transmission?
An electric charge is created in the neuron, the charge travels down the cell, and the chemicals are released that cross the synapse to the next cell.
Dr. Dahab, a brain researcher, is investigating the connection between certain environmental stimuli and brain processes. which types of brain scans is he most likely to use?
PET and EEG
Split-Brain patients are unable to
speak about information received exclusively in their right hemisphere.
when brain researchers refer to brain plasticity, they are talking about
new connections forming in the brain to take over the damaged sections
Mr. Spam is a 39-year old male who has been brought into your neurology clinic by his wife. she has become increasingly alarmed by her husband’s behavior over the last four months. you recommend a CAT scan to look for tumors in the brain. Which two parts of the brain would you predict are being affected by the tumors? symptoms include: vastly increased appetite, body temperature fluctuations, decreased sexual desire, jerky movements, poor balance when walking and standing, inability to throw objects, and exaggerated efforts to coordinate movemtns in a task
hypothalamus and cerebellum
In most people, which one of the following is a specific function of the left hemisphere that is typically not controlled by the right hemisphere?
producing speech
parts of the neuron
parts of the neuron
Our body’s neural system is built from billions of nerve cells, or neurons
-the extensions of a neuron that receive messages from other neurons are the dendrites
-the extension of a neuron that transmits info to other neurons is the axon
-some of the extensions are insulated by a layer of fatty cells called the myelin sheath, which helps speed the neuron’s impulses
hypothalamus function
contains reward centers
lesion function
tissue destruction
EEG function
amplified recording of the brain waves
fMRI function
technique that uses radio waves and magnetic fields to show brain function
reticular formation function
helps control arousal
MRI function
technique that uses radio waves and magnetic fields to image brain anatomy
thalamus function
serves as sensory switchboard
corpus callosum function
links the celebral hemispheres
cerebellum function
enables coordinated movement
amygdala function
influences rage and fear
medulla function
regulates breathing and heartbeat
right hemisphere function
specializes in spatial relations
brainstem function
oldest part of the brain
glial cells function
brain cells that provide nutrients and insulating myelin
aphasia function
language disorder
plasticity function
brain’s capacity for modification
broca’s area function
controls speech production
wernicke’s area function
the brain’s capacity for modification
limbic system function
regulates emotion
association areas function
brain areas involved in higher mental functions
left hemisphere function
specializes in rationalizing reactions
angular gyrus function
translates writing into speech
Brainstem
Brainstem
includes pons and medulla, is the brain’s basement and the oldest, innermost region
medulla
medulla
where the spinal cord enters the skull and swells slightly.
pons
pons
sits above the medulla and helps coordinate movements
reticular formation
reticular formation
inside the brainstem, between your ears, finger-shaped network of neurons that extends from the spinal cord right up to the thalamus. controls arousal
thalamus
thalamus
atop the brainstem, brain’s sensory switchboard, a joined pair of egg-shaped structures
cerebellum
cerebellum
“the little brain” attached to the rear of the brainstem; its functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance
the limbic system
brain’s older parts and its cerebral hemisheres. includes: hypothalamus, pituitary gland, amygdala, and hippocampus
hippocampus
hippocampus
processes memory
amygdala
amygdala
influences aggression and fear, tip of hippocampus
pituitary gland
pituitary gland
regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
hypothalamus
hypothalamus
just below the thalamus, monitors blood chemistry and takes orders from other parts of the brain. including sex in the celebral cortex. also controls the master gland
celebral cortex
celebral cortex
intricate covering of the interconnected neural cells that, like bark on tree, forms a thin surface layer on your cerebral hemispheres. ultimate control and information processing center
frontal lobes
frontal lobes
staring at the front of your brain going around over the top. involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements
parietal lobes
parietal lobes
behind your forehead. receives sensory input for touch and body position.
occipital lobes
occipital lobes
at the back of your head. includes visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field.
temporal lobes
temporal lobes
sides of your head. includes auditory areas which receive visual information primarily from the opposite ear.
motor cortex
motor cortex
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
Broca's area
Broca’s area
controls speech muscles via the motor cortex
wernicke's area
wernicke’s area
interprets auditory code
angular gyrus
angular gyrus
transforms visual representations into an auditory code
visual cortex
visual cortex
recieves written words as visual stimulation
a biological psychologist would be more likely to study
the chemical changes that accompany emotions
the part of the human brain that is most like that of a fish is the
brain stem
you are able to pull your and quickly away from hot water before pain is felt because
movement of the hand is a reflex that involves intervention of the spinal cord only
in order to pinpoint the location of a tumor, a neurosurgeon electrically stimulated parts of the patient’s sensory cortex. If the patient was conscious during the procedure, which of the following was probably the experienced?
sense of having the skin touched
if Dr. Rogers wishes to conduct an experiment on the effects of stimulating the reward centers of a rat’s brain, he should insert an electrode into the
hypothalamus
A split-brain patient has a picture of a knife flashed to her left hemisphere and that of a fork to her right hemisphere. she will be able to:
identify the fork using her left hand
Several shy neurons send an inhibitory message to neighboring neuron Joni. At the same time, a larger group of party-going neurons send Joni excitatory messages. What will Joni do?
Fire, assuming that her threshold has been reached
Following Jayshree’s near fatal car accident, her physician noticed that the pupillary reflex of her eyes were abnormal. This may indicate that jayshree’s what I was damaged in the accidentV?
Autonomic nervous system
The axons of certain neurons are covered by a layer of fatty tissue that helps speed neural transmission. This tissue is:
The myelin sheath
Heartbeat, digestion. And other self regulating bodily functions are governed by the
Autonomic nervous system
A strong stimulus can increase the
Number of times the neuron fires
The pain of heroin withdrawal may be attributable to the fact that
Under the influence of heroin the brain ceased production of endorphins
The brain research technique that involves monitoring the brain’s usage of glucose is called
PET scan
In a resting state, the axon is
Polarized, with mostly positively charged ions outside and negatively charged ions inside
Though there is no single “control center” for emotions, their regulation is primarily attributed to the brain region known as the
Limbic system
Which is the correct sequence in the transmission of a simple reflex?
Sensory neuron>interneuron>motor neuron
Damage to ___ will usually cause a person to lose the ability to comprehend the language
Wernicke’s area
Which of the following is typically controlled by the right hemisphere?
Perceptual tasks
Dr. Hernandez is studying neurotransmitter abnormalities in depressed patients. She would most likely describe herself as a
Biological psychologist
The increasing complexity of animals behavior is accompanied by an
Increase in the amount of association area
Voluntary movements, such as writing with w a pencil are directed by the
Somatic nervous system
A neuron will generate action potentials more often when it
Receives more excitatory than inhibitory inputs
Which is the correct sequence kin the transmission of a neural impulse ?
Dendrite> cell body > axon > synapse
Chemical messengers produced by endocrine glands are called
Hormones
Following a head injury, a person has an ongoing difficulty to stay awake. Damage most likely occurred to the
Reticular formation
Based on research, which of the following seems true about the specialized functions of the right and left hemispheres
Most complex activities emerge from the integrated activity of both hemispheres
Cortical areas that are not primarily concerned with sensory motor or language functions are
Called association areas
In the brain learning occurs as experience strengthens certain connections in cell work groups called
Neural networks
Which of the following is typically controlled by the left hemisphere?
Word recognition
Which is governed by the simplest neural pathways
Reflexes
Parkinson’s disease involves
The death of nerve cells that produce vital neurotransmitter
The myelin sheath that is in some neurons
Increases the speed of neural transmission
During an action potential, the electrical state of the axon becomes
Depolarized
The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is most likely to be found
At the junction between motor neurons and muscle fibers
The gland that regulates body growth is the
Pituitary
Epinephrine and norepinephrine are
Hormones released by the adrenal gland
Jessica experienced difficulty keeping her balance after receiving a blow to the back of her hEad. It is likely that she injured her
Cerebellum
Moruzzi and magoun caused a cat to lapse into a coma by severing neural connections between the cortex and the
Reticular formation
Research has found that the amount of representation in the motor cortex reflects the
Degree of precise control required by each of the parts
The effect of a drug that is an agonist is to
Mimic a particular neurotransmitter
The nerve fibers that enable communication between the right and left celebral hemispheres and that have been severed in split brain patients form a structure called the
Corpus callosum
The right hemisphere takes over what function when suffering
Language function