chapter 2 study set

Blindness could result from damage to which cortex and lobe of the brain?
visual cortex in the occipital lobe

Paralysis of the left arm might be explained by a problem in the
motor cortex in the frontal lobe in the right hemisphere

Deafness can result from damage to the inner ear or damage to what area of the brain?
connections between the auditory nerve and the auditory cortex in the temporal lobe

According to the theory of evolution, why might we call some parts of the brain the old brain and some parts the new brain?
The old brain developed first according to evolution

which chemicals pass across the synaptic gap and increase the possibility the next neuron in the chain will fire?
Excitatory neurotransmitters

You eat some bad sushi and feel that you are slowly losing control over your muscles. The bacteria you ingested from the bad sushi most likely interferes with the use of
acetylcholine

The three major categories researches use to organize the entire brain are the
hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain

A spinal reflex differs from a normal sensory and motor reaction in that
in a spinal reflex, the spine moves the muscles in response as soon as the sensory information reaches the spin while the impulse must reach the brain before a response.

Antidepressant drugs like Prozac are often used to treat mood disorders. According to what you know about their functions, which neurotransmitter do these types of drugs try to affect?
serotonin

which sentence most likely describes neural transmission?
An electric charge is created in the neuron, the charge travels down the cell, and the chemicals are released that cross the synapse to the next cell.

Dr. Dahab, a brain researcher, is investigating the connection between certain environmental stimuli and brain processes. which types of brain scans is he most likely to use?
PET and EEG

Split-Brain patients are unable to
speak about information received exclusively in their right hemisphere.

when brain researchers refer to brain plasticity, they are talking about
new connections forming in the brain to take over the damaged sections

Mr. Spam is a 39-year old male who has been brought into your neurology clinic by his wife. she has become increasingly alarmed by her husband’s behavior over the last four months. you recommend a CAT scan to look for tumors in the brain. Which two parts of the brain would you predict are being affected by the tumors? symptoms include: vastly increased appetite, body temperature fluctuations, decreased sexual desire, jerky movements, poor balance when walking and standing, inability to throw objects, and exaggerated efforts to coordinate movemtns in a task
hypothalamus and cerebellum

In most people, which one of the following is a specific function of the left hemisphere that is typically not controlled by the right hemisphere?
producing speech

parts of the neuron
parts of the neuron
Our body’s neural system is built from billions of nerve cells, or neurons
-the extensions of a neuron that receive messages from other neurons are the dendrites
-the extension of a neuron that transmits info to other neurons is the axon
-some of the extensions are insulated by a layer of fatty cells called the myelin sheath, which helps speed the neuron’s impulses

hypothalamus function
contains reward centers

lesion function
tissue destruction

EEG function
amplified recording of the brain waves

fMRI function
technique that uses radio waves and magnetic fields to show brain function

reticular formation function
helps control arousal

MRI function
technique that uses radio waves and magnetic fields to image brain anatomy

thalamus function
serves as sensory switchboard

corpus callosum function
links the celebral hemispheres

cerebellum function
enables coordinated movement

amygdala function
influences rage and fear

medulla function
regulates breathing and heartbeat

right hemisphere function
specializes in spatial relations

brainstem function
oldest part of the brain

glial cells function
brain cells that provide nutrients and insulating myelin

aphasia function
language disorder

plasticity function
brain’s capacity for modification

broca’s area function
controls speech production

wernicke’s area function
the brain’s capacity for modification

limbic system function
regulates emotion

association areas function
brain areas involved in higher mental functions

left hemisphere function
specializes in rationalizing reactions

angular gyrus function
translates writing into speech

Brainstem
Brainstem
includes pons and medulla, is the brain’s basement and the oldest, innermost region

medulla
medulla
where the spinal cord enters the skull and swells slightly.

pons
pons
sits above the medulla and helps coordinate movements

reticular formation
reticular formation
inside the brainstem, between your ears, finger-shaped network of neurons that extends from the spinal cord right up to the thalamus. controls arousal

thalamus
thalamus
atop the brainstem, brain’s sensory switchboard, a joined pair of egg-shaped structures

cerebellum
cerebellum
“the little brain” attached to the rear of the brainstem; its functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance

the limbic system
brain’s older parts and its cerebral hemisheres. includes: hypothalamus, pituitary gland, amygdala, and hippocampus

hippocampus
hippocampus
processes memory

amygdala
amygdala
influences aggression and fear, tip of hippocampus

pituitary gland
pituitary gland
regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands

hypothalamus
hypothalamus
just below the thalamus, monitors blood chemistry and takes orders from other parts of the brain. including sex in the celebral cortex. also controls the master gland

celebral cortex
celebral cortex
intricate covering of the interconnected neural cells that, like bark on tree, forms a thin surface layer on your cerebral hemispheres. ultimate control and information processing center

frontal lobes
frontal lobes
staring at the front of your brain going around over the top. involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements

parietal lobes
parietal lobes
behind your forehead. receives sensory input for touch and body position.

occipital lobes
occipital lobes
at the back of your head. includes visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field.

temporal lobes
temporal lobes
sides of your head. includes auditory areas which receive visual information primarily from the opposite ear.

motor cortex
motor cortex
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements

Broca's area
Broca’s area
controls speech muscles via the motor cortex

wernicke's area
wernicke’s area
interprets auditory code

angular gyrus
angular gyrus
transforms visual representations into an auditory code

visual cortex
visual cortex
recieves written words as visual stimulation

a biological psychologist would be more likely to study
the chemical changes that accompany emotions

the part of the human brain that is most like that of a fish is the
brain stem

you are able to pull your and quickly away from hot water before pain is felt because
movement of the hand is a reflex that involves intervention of the spinal cord only

in order to pinpoint the location of a tumor, a neurosurgeon electrically stimulated parts of the patient’s sensory cortex. If the patient was conscious during the procedure, which of the following was probably the experienced?
sense of having the skin touched

if Dr. Rogers wishes to conduct an experiment on the effects of stimulating the reward centers of a rat’s brain, he should insert an electrode into the
hypothalamus

A split-brain patient has a picture of a knife flashed to her left hemisphere and that of a fork to her right hemisphere. she will be able to:
identify the fork using her left hand

Several shy neurons send an inhibitory message to neighboring neuron Joni. At the same time, a larger group of party-going neurons send Joni excitatory messages. What will Joni do?
Fire, assuming that her threshold has been reached

Following Jayshree’s near fatal car accident, her physician noticed that the pupillary reflex of her eyes were abnormal. This may indicate that jayshree’s what I was damaged in the accidentV?
Autonomic nervous system

The axons of certain neurons are covered by a layer of fatty tissue that helps speed neural transmission. This tissue is:
The myelin sheath

Heartbeat, digestion. And other self regulating bodily functions are governed by the
Autonomic nervous system

A strong stimulus can increase the
Number of times the neuron fires

The pain of heroin withdrawal may be attributable to the fact that
Under the influence of heroin the brain ceased production of endorphins

The brain research technique that involves monitoring the brain’s usage of glucose is called
PET scan

In a resting state, the axon is
Polarized, with mostly positively charged ions outside and negatively charged ions inside

Though there is no single “control center” for emotions, their regulation is primarily attributed to the brain region known as the
Limbic system

Which is the correct sequence in the transmission of a simple reflex?
Sensory neuron>interneuron>motor neuron

Damage to ___ will usually cause a person to lose the ability to comprehend the language
Wernicke’s area

Which of the following is typically controlled by the right hemisphere?
Perceptual tasks

Dr. Hernandez is studying neurotransmitter abnormalities in depressed patients. She would most likely describe herself as a
Biological psychologist

The increasing complexity of animals behavior is accompanied by an
Increase in the amount of association area

Voluntary movements, such as writing with w a pencil are directed by the
Somatic nervous system

A neuron will generate action potentials more often when it
Receives more excitatory than inhibitory inputs

Which is the correct sequence kin the transmission of a neural impulse ?
Dendrite> cell body > axon > synapse

Chemical messengers produced by endocrine glands are called
Hormones

Following a head injury, a person has an ongoing difficulty to stay awake. Damage most likely occurred to the
Reticular formation

Based on research, which of the following seems true about the specialized functions of the right and left hemispheres
Most complex activities emerge from the integrated activity of both hemispheres

Cortical areas that are not primarily concerned with sensory motor or language functions are
Called association areas

In the brain learning occurs as experience strengthens certain connections in cell work groups called
Neural networks

Which of the following is typically controlled by the left hemisphere?
Word recognition

Which is governed by the simplest neural pathways
Reflexes

Parkinson’s disease involves
The death of nerve cells that produce vital neurotransmitter

The myelin sheath that is in some neurons
Increases the speed of neural transmission

During an action potential, the electrical state of the axon becomes
Depolarized

The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is most likely to be found
At the junction between motor neurons and muscle fibers

The gland that regulates body growth is the
Pituitary

Epinephrine and norepinephrine are
Hormones released by the adrenal gland

Jessica experienced difficulty keeping her balance after receiving a blow to the back of her hEad. It is likely that she injured her
Cerebellum

Moruzzi and magoun caused a cat to lapse into a coma by severing neural connections between the cortex and the
Reticular formation

Research has found that the amount of representation in the motor cortex reflects the
Degree of precise control required by each of the parts

The effect of a drug that is an agonist is to
Mimic a particular neurotransmitter

The nerve fibers that enable communication between the right and left celebral hemispheres and that have been severed in split brain patients form a structure called the
Corpus callosum

The right hemisphere takes over what function when suffering
Language function