Chapter 2 quiz (US history)

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Native were fatalistic
– see this as the end of hte world
– when Europeans come in, they give up the will to live, believing its the apocalypse
by 15th century, ____ Africans transported to US
75,000
St Augustine
est 1565
oldest spanish settlement in north america
why spanish didnt settle a lot in North America
– they were looking primarily for gold and silver which were more readily found in central america
1588
defeat of the spanish armada
pirates= sir francis drake and jack hawkins
Spanish settle in New Mexico, Utah, Colorado because______
– pirate francis drake from england is patrolling the western coastline, forcing them further inland
1598–
-Huan de On~ate sent to New Mexico as governer with 129 soldiers and their families, 7000 livestock, 10 franciscan missionaries
in New Mexico the pueblo revolt, European punishment
– 500 men killed
– 300 women killed
– men over 25- cut off 1 foot
– most forced into slavery
English Settlement
– begins for real after 1588 (defeat of spanish armada)
– emulated spanish
– still wanted to to find north west passage
– wanted silver/gold/slaves
– expected Natives to provide for them
why did english ppl go to the Americas
– enclosure of land was common iin England taking away farming land
– they had to move to cities where they had to find new types of jobs
– advertisements showed America as beautiful and a place of certain wealth
jamestown
– inhabited by English
– in Virginia, Chesapeake Bay area, mouth of James River
– deep river allows ship to come right up to port
– but land is poor, swampy, in winter water gets murky and causes dysentry
-away from Spanish coastline(hiding)
john smith
-was chained for part of first journey to US for impassioned speeches
– prior mercenary for Austrians, work with Dutch against King Philip
– later became a goo leader for the colonists and forced them to work
– injured in 1609, forced to go back to england
Starving time
1609-1610
– brought about from lack of hard work and John Smith’s absence
– rough, starving winter
– population went from 600 to 60 in Jamestown
– turn to cannabilism
– Natives destroy crops
Colonists arrived _______
May 1607
– suffer scurvy (rotten/depleted food supply)
– werent ready for farm work/ hard labor
– bad shelter– tree houses
– dysentry (from brackish water)
– dehydration
-survived thru help of Native Americans
– had lack of leadership (until Smith)
Thomas Dale
– new governer when Smith left
– enforced martial law to reestablish order after starving time
– harsh punishments for not working or stealing food (cut of limb/killed/tortured)
Tsenacommacah
Native American name for Virginia area
– meaning \”densely populated area\”
Opechancanough
– threatened by John Smith out of nowhere
– bro of chief of one Iroquois tribe
Pohcahontas
– name meant \”little hellion\”
– spunky child well liked by Europeans
– nine when met John Smith (no romantic relationship)
– learned english from the settlers and traders
– married John Rolff, kept peace between Natives and Europeans until her death
John Rolff
– discovers main cash crop for colony– tobacco
– later marries Pohcanhontas
tobacco
-main cash crop
-mix Native tobacco with some from trinadad= \”black gold\”
– 3 schillings per pound
– ruined soil after 2 years (caused europeans to rapidly spread inward, push out Natives)
Europeans bring Pigs
– became feral, competed in woods with Native Americans for food
Europeans bring Honey Bees
– pollinators– apple and pear trees
– change landscape even more
– take over more land
Europeans bring earthworms
– change landscape
– eat leaves on ground, soil eroded more easily
– Natives well maintained forest, worms made this more difficult
indentured servants
– were meant to meet the colonies increasing need for labor (but didnt)
– after 5 years of slave labor, they were promised 100 acres (*before 1616) or 50 acres (*after 1616)
1st representative body in America
House of Burgess (legistlative type panel)
– located in jamestown
– unicameral (1 chamber)
– all wealthy white men land owners
executive branch in early european colonized America
– governer
– appointed in England
Africans good slaves becuase—–
– didnt succumb to diseases as easily
– used to working in heat
– dont know lay of land, escape would be harder
– stick out if they do manage to run away
Virginia became a \”royal Colony\”
– 1624
– Virginia COmpany went bankrupt (because of conflict with the powhatans) so colony taken over by Britain
juan de onate
– 1595 appointed gov of new mexico by viceroy
– married to daughter of Aztec daughter and Cortes
– mexican by birth
– banished from new mexico for cruel treaetment of Natives, but when he returned to Spain was knighted and made chief mine inspector
Pedro Peralta
– gov of new mexico after onate
– made santa fe the capital in 1610
capital for first America settlements raised thru
joint stock companies
first royal English charter went to
the Virginia Company
No _____ went to Jamestown
farmers
Thomas Dale reported that settlers_______
bowled daily
Jamestown coloinsts
wanted gold, dug for gold instead of planting crops
English settlers (in regards to Native American lands)
– cause conflict because unwilling to share land with Natives
– take land without making payment
– thought taking land from Natives was their God given right
New France activities–
fur trading and trapping
first French man to establish colony in North America
Samuel de Champlain
Quebec = royal province in ______
1660s
In quebec________
New France
– popualtion growth was slow
– feudal land system
– no Protestants allowed
– Peasants couldnt own land
Native Americans (fur trade)
– nearly exterminated beavers
– more likely to start wars with other tribes
– had to go further back into the country to find animals
wealthy ppl in Netherlands invested in
TRADE
By 1675, _________established colonies on the Atlantic coast
English and Spanish
Headright
– established to entive english to settle in America
– come before 1616= 100 acres
– come after= 50 acres
encomienda
– Spanish practice of demanding goods and presents from Native Americnas as tribute – also their labor
1619
– Americas first representative body = house of burgesses
– first big wave of slaves and indentured servants
– Headrights established
benefits of French
– settled in small groups which didnt completely take over landscape
– did not force Natives to convert
– French learned about hte Natives culture and society and language
– good traders (fur)
May flower
– September 6,1620 – March 21, 1621
-102 passengers (67 were not pilgrims)
– 20 crewmen
– tightly packed (because at double capacity from the passengers from the Speewell)
– Scurvy and malnutrition
– too high salt intake
— dehydration, diabetes, high blood pressure
Pilgrims were backed by________
the Virginia Company
Pilgrims aimed to land at _____________
Hudson River because north enough from Jamestown so nto to compete
mayflower Compact
1620
– signed on board the Mayflower when they realized out of Virgina Company jurisdiction
– all men sign to agree on rule of law in settlement
– Declare leaders, promise to follow them
– assigned name in 1793
– first constitution in America
Patuxet
abandoned villages in plymouth area when small pox wiped most out, giving the pilgrims the false notion that the land was not inhabited
Squanto
– survived small pox because he had been sold earlier into slavery
– found unburied bodies of his tribesmen
– teaches settlers hor to hunt, fish, farm (also aided by Pokanokets)
Settlers and Natives get along
– feast for three days
– maybe first thanksgiving (disputed by virginians)
– settlers and pokanokets
William Bradford
1633
– first gov of plymouth
– thought the pilgrims were spared from small pox plague because of Gods will
Pilgrims were _______________-
– literal/ simple interpretation
– pseudo-middle age thinking (everything chalked up to Gods will)
massachussetts bay colony
– 1630– puritans
– 10 years after pilgrims
– 1000 ppl come over
– not a capitalist endeavor(financed personally by puritans)
– leader = John Winthrop
– designed to be a model community
– \”Beacon of hope\” shining example of utopian society
– theocracy (no separation of church and state)
Separists
gave up on England
didnt believe the church there could be reformed
thought best thing was a clean slate
Puritans
still hoped that England would reform
wanted to be a model for what England shoud do
Winthrop and puritans lasting contributions
– Boston Commons (set aside as land for public use)
– Boston latin school and Harvard (spurred american public school system)
winthrop was against
Democracy
– mob rule
– thought rule by council of wise elders would be best
Calvinists
– predestination
– heaven and hell
– harsh punishments
1648 Law
Puritans made set of laws
– combined english common law, their own statuates, adn biblical law
– capital punishment for adultery (2 people)
– repressive for women
– background for salem witch trials
– no religious freedom (persecuted not puritans)
– children disrespectful could be put to death
Puritan social order
– put in place by GOd
– family hierarchy important
– families usu had 5 kids
– family was the foundation (no singles allowed in colony if not living with a family)
Puritan ideas on women
– bog on the sins of Eve— women were not given a voice in any decisions, considered emotionally inferior to men, punished for eve by pain in childbirth: shouldnt try ot help pain because it = penance
puritan life expectancy
60-70
puritan socity 3 main parts
– religion
– family
– community

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