Chapter 2: Principles of Ecology(Study Guide)

biology
the study of life

two
two

three
three

ecology
the branch of biology concerned with the relations between organisms and their environment

biotic factors
living parts of an ecosystem

nonliving
not endowed with life

enviorments
the specific conditions under wich animals and plants can live

atmosphere
a distinctive but intangible quality surrounding a person or thing

humans
all of the inhabitants of the earth

organisms
Any living thing

soil
the geographical area under the jurisdiction of a sovereign state

biosphere
the regions of the surface and atmosphere of the Earth (or other planet) where living organisms exist

abiotic factors
nonliving parts of an ecosystem

community
(ecology) a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other

competition
the struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources

forest
the trees and other plants in a large densely wooded area

population
a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area

ecosystem
a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment

sunlight
Energy that is lost at each trophic level of an ecosystem is replensished by

nutrients
besides energy, what moves through the organisms at each trophic level of an ecosystem?

water cycle
evaporation and condensation a part of the

evaporation
Plants lose water to the air through

Breathe and urinate
Animals lose water when they

false
a habitat is the role a species in a community T OR F

true
habitat may change T OR F

false
a niche is the place where an organism lives its life T OR F

false
a habitat can inclede only one niche T OR F

true
a species’ niche includes how the species meets its need for food and shelter T OR F

true
the centipedes and worms that live under a certain log occupy the same habitat but have different niches. T OR F

false
it is an advantage for two species to share the same niche T OR F

true
competition betwen two species is reduced when the species have different niches. T OR F

organaisms
living organisms in our world ae connected to other___________in a variety of ways.

ecology
the branch of biology called________is the scientific study of interactions among oganisms and their,

environments
: is the scientific study of interactions among organisms and their______, etc,.

nonliving
including realtionships between living and________things.

biosphere
all living things on earth can be found in the_________,the potion of earth that supports life.

atmosphere
it extends from high in the_________to the bottom of the oceans.

biotic factors
all living organisms found in an environment are called________.

abiotic factors
nonliving parts of an environment are called__________.

humans
for example, whales, trees, and________are biotic factors.

soil
ocean currents, temperature, and_______are abiotic factors.

population
a group of organisms of one species that interbreed and live in the same place at the same time.

community
a collection of interacting populations.

ecosystem
interactions among the populations and abiotic factors in a community.

competition
occurs between organisms when resources are scarce.

forest
a terrestial ecosystem.

sunlight
Energy that is lost at each trophic level of an ecosystem is replensished by

nutrients
besides energy, what moves through the organisms at each trophic level of an ecosystem?

water cycle
evaporation and condensation a part of the

evaporation
Plants lose water to the air through

Breathe and urinate
Animals lose water when they Breathe and urinate

precipitation
the water in the atmosphere is returned to the earth

growth
autotrophs and heterotrophs use carbon molecules for energy and growth

Carbon dioxide
plants use carbon dioxide in photosynthesis to make carbon molecules

feeding on other organisms
when decomposers break down the carbon molecules by

carbon dioxide is released
when

false
a habitat is the role a species plays in a community

true
habitats may change

false
a niche is the place where an organism lives its life

false
a habitat can include only one niche

true
a species’ niche includes how the species meets its need for food and shelter

true
the centipedes and worms that live under a certain log occupy the same habitat but have different niches

false
it is an advantage for two species to share the same niche

true
competition between two species is reduced when the species have different niches

symbiosis
organisms of different species live together in a close, permanent relationship

commensalism
one species benefits and the other species in neither benefited nor harmed by the relationship

parasitism
one species benefits from the relationship at the expense of the other species

mutualism
both species benefit from the other relationship

3
How many food chains make up the food web?

insect
Which organism is an herbivore ?

plant
Which organism is an autotroph?

snake
Which organism is a third-order heterotroph? To what trophic level does that organism belong?

bird
Which organism is an omnivore?

Plants, insects, snake,bird
Which organisms belong to more than one food chain?

bird
Which organism belongs to more than one trophic level?

sunlight
Energy that is lost at each trophic level of an ecosystem is replensished by

nutrients
besides energy, what moves through the organisms at each trophic level of an ecosystem?

water cycle
evaporation and condensation a part of the

evaporation
Plants lose water to the air through

Breathe and urinate
Animals lose water when they

false
a habitat is the role a species in a community T OR F

true
habitat may change T OR F

false
a niche is the place where an organism lives its life T OR F

false
a habitat can include only one niche T OR F

true
a species’ niche includes how the species meets its need for food and shelter T OR F

true
the centipedes and worms that live under a certain log occupy the same habitat but have different niches. T OR F

false
it is an advantage for two species to share the same niche T OR F

true
competition betwen two species is reduced when the species have different niches. T OR F

symbiosis
organisms of different species live together in a close, permanent relationship ___________

commensalism
one species benefits and the other species is neither benefited nor harmed by the relationship___________

parasitism
one species benefits from the relationship at the expense of the other species____________

mutualism
both species benefit from the relationship______________

Three
How many food chains make up the food web?

insects
Which organism is an herbivor?

snake, 4th
Which organism is a 3rd order heterotrph? to what trophic level does that organism belong?

Bird
Which organism is an omnivore?

Plants, Insects, Birds
Which organisms belong to more than one trophic level?

Eats dead animials.
What are decomposers? From which trophic levels are the organisms that decomposers feed on?

organisms
living organisms in our world are connected to other

ecology
the branch of biology is called

enviroment
the scientific study of interactions among organisms and their

nonliving
when things are not alive They are

biosphere
all living things can be found in the

atmosphere
above the ocean

biotic factors
all living organism found , all the living organisms that inhabit an environment

abiotic factors
non-living things in an ecosystem

humans
people

soil
material in the top layer of the surface of the earth in which plants can grow

community
a group of people living in a particular local area

competition
the struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources

forest
the trees and other plants in a large densely wooded area

population
group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area

ecosystem
a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment