Chapter 2: Principles of Ecology(Study Guide)

biology
the study of life
two
two
three
three
ecology
the branch of biology concerned with the relations between organisms and their environment
biotic factors
living parts of an ecosystem
nonliving
not endowed with life
enviorments
the specific conditions under wich animals and plants can live
atmosphere
a distinctive but intangible quality surrounding a person or thing
humans
all of the inhabitants of the earth
organisms
Any living thing
soil
the geographical area under the jurisdiction of a sovereign state
biosphere
the regions of the surface and atmosphere of the Earth (or other planet) where living organisms exist
abiotic factors
nonliving parts of an ecosystem
community
(ecology) a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other
competition
the struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources
forest
the trees and other plants in a large densely wooded area
population
a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area
ecosystem
a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment
sunlight
Energy that is lost at each trophic level of an ecosystem is replensished by
nutrients
besides energy, what moves through the organisms at each trophic level of an ecosystem?
water cycle
evaporation and condensation a part of the
evaporation
Plants lose water to the air through
Breathe and urinate
Animals lose water when they
false
a habitat is the role a species in a community T OR F
true
habitat may change T OR F
false
a niche is the place where an organism lives its life T OR F
false
a habitat can inclede only one niche T OR F
true
a species’ niche includes how the species meets its need for food and shelter T OR F
true
the centipedes and worms that live under a certain log occupy the same habitat but have different niches. T OR F
false
it is an advantage for two species to share the same niche T OR F
true
competition betwen two species is reduced when the species have different niches. T OR F
organaisms
living organisms in our world ae connected to other___________in a variety of ways.
ecology
the branch of biology called________is the scientific study of interactions among oganisms and their,
environments
: is the scientific study of interactions among organisms and their______, etc,.
nonliving
including realtionships between living and________things.
biosphere
all living things on earth can be found in the_________,the potion of earth that supports life.
atmosphere
it extends from high in the_________to the bottom of the oceans.
biotic factors
all living organisms found in an environment are called________.
abiotic factors
nonliving parts of an environment are called__________.
humans
for example, whales, trees, and________are biotic factors.
soil
ocean currents, temperature, and_______are abiotic factors.
population
a group of organisms of one species that interbreed and live in the same place at the same time.
community
a collection of interacting populations.
ecosystem
interactions among the populations and abiotic factors in a community.
competition
occurs between organisms when resources are scarce.
forest
a terrestial ecosystem.
sunlight
Energy that is lost at each trophic level of an ecosystem is replensished by
nutrients
besides energy, what moves through the organisms at each trophic level of an ecosystem?
water cycle
evaporation and condensation a part of the
evaporation
Plants lose water to the air through
Breathe and urinate
Animals lose water when they Breathe and urinate
precipitation
the water in the atmosphere is returned to the earth
growth
autotrophs and heterotrophs use carbon molecules for energy and growth
Carbon dioxide
plants use carbon dioxide in photosynthesis to make carbon molecules
feeding on other organisms
when decomposers break down the carbon molecules by
carbon dioxide is released
when
false
a habitat is the role a species plays in a community
true
habitats may change
false
a niche is the place where an organism lives its life
false
a habitat can include only one niche
true
a species’ niche includes how the species meets its need for food and shelter
true
the centipedes and worms that live under a certain log occupy the same habitat but have different niches
false
it is an advantage for two species to share the same niche
true
competition between two species is reduced when the species have different niches
symbiosis
organisms of different species live together in a close, permanent relationship
commensalism
one species benefits and the other species in neither benefited nor harmed by the relationship
parasitism
one species benefits from the relationship at the expense of the other species
mutualism
both species benefit from the other relationship
3
How many food chains make up the food web?
insect
Which organism is an herbivore ?
plant
Which organism is an autotroph?
snake
Which organism is a third-order heterotroph? To what trophic level does that organism belong?
bird
Which organism is an omnivore?
Plants, insects, snake,bird
Which organisms belong to more than one food chain?
bird
Which organism belongs to more than one trophic level?
sunlight
Energy that is lost at each trophic level of an ecosystem is replensished by
nutrients
besides energy, what moves through the organisms at each trophic level of an ecosystem?
water cycle
evaporation and condensation a part of the
evaporation
Plants lose water to the air through
Breathe and urinate
Animals lose water when they
false
a habitat is the role a species in a community T OR F
true
habitat may change T OR F
false
a niche is the place where an organism lives its life T OR F
false
a habitat can include only one niche T OR F
true
a species’ niche includes how the species meets its need for food and shelter T OR F
true
the centipedes and worms that live under a certain log occupy the same habitat but have different niches. T OR F
false
it is an advantage for two species to share the same niche T OR F
true
competition betwen two species is reduced when the species have different niches. T OR F
symbiosis
organisms of different species live together in a close, permanent relationship ___________
commensalism
one species benefits and the other species is neither benefited nor harmed by the relationship___________
parasitism
one species benefits from the relationship at the expense of the other species____________
mutualism
both species benefit from the relationship______________
Three
How many food chains make up the food web?
insects
Which organism is an herbivor?
snake, 4th
Which organism is a 3rd order heterotrph? to what trophic level does that organism belong?
Bird
Which organism is an omnivore?
Plants, Insects, Birds
Which organisms belong to more than one trophic level?
Eats dead animials.
What are decomposers? From which trophic levels are the organisms that decomposers feed on?
organisms
living organisms in our world are connected to other
ecology
the branch of biology is called
enviroment
the scientific study of interactions among organisms and their
nonliving
when things are not alive They are
biosphere
all living things can be found in the
atmosphere
above the ocean
biotic factors
all living organism found , all the living organisms that inhabit an environment
abiotic factors
non-living things in an ecosystem
humans
people
soil
material in the top layer of the surface of the earth in which plants can grow
community
a group of people living in a particular local area
competition
the struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources
forest
the trees and other plants in a large densely wooded area
population
group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area
ecosystem
a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment