Chapter 18 Vocabulary – World History

Flashcard maker : August Dunbar
ghazi
warriors for Islam
Ottoman
follower of the most successful ghazi, Osman
sultan
overlord or the one with power
Timur the Lame
conqueror and warrior that burned the powerful city of Baghdad to the ground and halted the expansion of the Ottaman empire by crushing their forces at the Battle of Ankara
Mehmed II
leader that came to throne in 1451 and conquered the important city of Constantinople, the most dramatic feat in Ottoman history
– changed Constantinople to Istanbul
devshirme
policy under which the sultan’s army drafted boys from the peoples of conquered Christian territories, educated them, converted them to Islam, and trained them to be soldiers
janissary
elite force of 30,000 soldiers that were trained to be loyal only to the sultan
Safavid
a Shi’ite Muslim dynasty that ruled in Persia between the 16th and 18th centuries and provided a striking example of cultural blending
Isma’il
a Safavid military boy that seized what is now Iran when he was 14 years old; made himself king and became a religious tyrant
shah
ancient Persian word for king
Shah Abbas
Safavid king that helped create a Safavid culture and golden age that drew from the best of Ottoman, Persian, and Arab worlds
Esfahan
capital of the Safavid empire built by Shah Abbas
– was considered one of the most beautiful cities in the world
– became a showplace for many artisans
Suleyman the Lawgiver
Ottoman ruler came to the throne in 1520 and ruled for 46 years
Muhgal
member of the warlike tribes of Central Asia that descended from Muslim Turks and Afghans
Babur
inherited a small kingdom when he was only 11 years old but it was taken away from him by elders; later built an army and laid the foundation for the vast Mughal Empire
Akbar
Babur’s grandson that ruled India with wisdom and tolerance from 1556 to 1605
Sikhs
a nonviolent religious group whose doctrines contained elements similar to Hinduism and Sufism; saw themselves as an independent tradition and not an offshoot of another religion
Shah Jahan
Muhgal ruler that secured his throne by assassinating all possible rivals; had a passion for beautiful buildings and his wife, Mumtaz Mahal
Taj Mahal
memorial temple built by Shah Jahan for his wife,Mumtaz Mahal, after she died giving birth to her 14th child
– has been called one of the most beautiful buildings in the world
Aurangzeb
third son of Shah Jahan that executed his oldest brother and arrested his father in order to claim the throne

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