Chapter 16 and 17 Evolution

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Who was Charles Darwin?
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ship naturalist on the HMS Beagle who traveled around the world for 5 years he collected data on living and nonliving things
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What did Hutton and Lydell conclude?
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they concluded that the Earth is extremely old and the same processes to change the Earth back then is the same now
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What did Thomas Malthus conclude?
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he concluded that babies were being more more than people were dying so the population was growing and one day resources would run out
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What did Alfred Wallace do?
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In 1858 he sent Darwin a letter about his theory and Darwin had the same theory
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What did Darwin do in 1859?
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He published his theory of evolution in a book
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What were the two theories used in Darwin’s book?
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theories of natural selection and genetic variation
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What is natural selection?
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Natural selection is the result of organisms changing over time
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What does genetic variation lead to?
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different phenotypes; with the effect of the environment, and how it may choose one trait over the other
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What does survival of the fittest mean?
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heritable characteristics that allow the organism to survive and reproduce will usually have a better chance at survival
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Stabilizing selection
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when the environment chooses intermediate forms of traits the graph shows the hump in the middle
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An example of stabilizing selection?
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Human birth weight
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Directional selection
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when the environment chooses one extreme form of the trait the graph shows the hump to one side
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Example of directional selection?
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woodpecker nose length (long)
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Disruptive selection
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when the environment chooses the two extreme forms of the trait the graph shows two humps to each side
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Example of disruptive selection?
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Lizard body size
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What else can lead to evolution?
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Mutations, genetic drift, and migration
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What is the genetic drift?
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when chance events alter allele frequency
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Examples of genetic drift causes?
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Tornadoes, hurricanes, flood, earthquake
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Another name for genetic drift?
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The bottleneck effect
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What can be led for the genetic drift?
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Founders effect
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Explain Hardy Weinberg Principle
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this principle assumes that population does not occur to genetic equilibrium
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What are the conditions to be met to genetic equilibrium?
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Random mating Large population No migration No natural selection (RLNN) (Riley Loves Negative Nellies)?
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Two equations for Hardy Weinberg?
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p+q=1 p2+2pq+q2=1
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Evidence of Evolution?
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Fossil Records Geographic distribution (Pangaea) Vestigial organs Homologous structures Analogous structures Embryology Molecular biology (FGVHAEM) (Fred Gets Vanilla Hamburgers At Every Mets-game)?
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Speciation?
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the process by which new species are formed results from reproductive isolation
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Different types of reproductive isolation?
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Behavioral Isolation, geographic isolation, and temporal isolation
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Convergent Isolation
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when unrelated species evolve to look similar due to similar habitats
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Example of convergent isolation
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sharks and dolphins
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Divergent Isolation
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when related species become different overtime because of different environments
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Another name for Divergent isolation?
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Adaptive isolation
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Example of divergent isolation
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finch story at Galapagos
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Coevolution
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when two different species evolve in response to the other over time
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Example of coevolution?
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Flower shape for butterflies, and butterflies tongue to get nectar Or toxin-bug story
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Gradualism
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when species evolve at a slow steady time rate
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Punctuated equilibrium
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when species stay the same for long periods of time and then undergo rapid change (thousands of years)
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Molecular clocks
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part of molecular evolution uses mutation rates in DNA sequences to estimate the time that two species have been evolving independently Nuetral mutations accumulate in DNA over time at about the same time in species By comparing DNA sequences of two species, we can determine the amount of time that passed from the split The more differences, the more time has passed from the common ancestor
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Where do genes come from?
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from copying genes that can occur due to unequal swapping of dna during crossing over, and modification of genes
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What were the three observations that Darwin concluded?
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Species varied globally Species varied locally Species varied overtime
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Who was Jean Baptiste-Lamark?
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In 1809, he developed a hypothesis that acquire traits that could be passed from parent to offspring an example: why birds fly- because they tried
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Who was Thomas Malthus?
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an English economist who in 1798 wrote a book stating babies were being born faster than people were dying he said someday resources will run out
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What did Darwin say about individuals?
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That no two were the same That genetic variation leads to different phenotypes That the environment may choose one variation of a trait over the other
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What is adaptation?
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any heritable characteristic that allows the organism to survive and reproduce
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What does natural selection mean?
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Natural selection means that no two individuals are the same
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What are vestigial organs?
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structures that no longer serve a function
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An example of vestigial organs?
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Human appendix Whale pelvic bone
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What are homologous structures?
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structures that come from the same tissues but serve a different function
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What are analogous structures?
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structures that are similar in function but not from a common ancestor
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Example of analogous structures?
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Bats, butterflies, and birds
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What is Embryology
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study of embryos
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What is molecular biology?
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similarities in DNA sequence which suggests evolutionary relationships
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example of molecular biology
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hox genes
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Behavioral isolation
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when courtship rituals keep from interbreeding
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example of behavioral isolation
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blue foot boobie doing mating dance to a duck the duck would not understand
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Geographic isolation
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when separated by a physical barrier
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an example of geographic isolation
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galapogos turtles or finch story when these two different evolved species try to mate river and beetle story
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What is biogeography?
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study of where organisms live now and where their ancestors used to live
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How did geologists figured out earths age?
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radioactivity

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