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Chapter 15 Therapies

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psychotherapy
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the treatment of emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal problems through the use of psychological techniques designed to encourage understanding of problems and modify troubling feelings, behaviors or relationships
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biomedical therapies
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use of medications, electroconvulsive therapy, or other medical treatments to treat the symptoms associated with psychological disorders
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psychoanalysis
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a type of psychotherapy originated by sigmund freud in which free association, dream interpretation, and analysis of resistance and transference are used to explore repressed or unconscious impulses, anxieties and internal conflicts
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free association
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a technique in psychoanalysis in which the patient spontaneously reports all thoughts, feelings, and mental images as they come to mind, as a way of revealing unconscious thoughts and eomtions
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resistance
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in psychoanalysis, the patient’s unconscious attempts to block the revelation of repressed memories and conflicts
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dream interpretation
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content of dream is analyzed for disguised or symbolic wishes, meanings and motivations
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interpretation
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psychoanalyst offers a carefully timed explanation of the patient’s dreams, free association, or behaviors to facilitate the recognition of unconscious conflicts or motivations
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transference
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psychoanalysis, process by which the emotions and desires originally associated with a significant person in the patient’s life, such as a parent are unconsciously transferred to the psychoanalysis
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short term dynamic therapies
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type of psychotherapy that is based on psychoanalytic theory but differs in that it is typically time limited, has specific goals, and involves an active, rather than neutral, role for the therapist.
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interpersonal therapy
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a brief, psychodynamic psychotherapy that focuses on current relationships and is based on the assumption that symptoms are caused and maintained by interpersonal problems. ex: Helpful for treating eating disorders,substance abuse depression, marital problems, parenting issues.
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client-centered therapy
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a type of psychotherapy develped by humanistic psychologist Carl Rogers in which the therapist is nondirective and reflective, and the client directs the focus of each therapy session; also called person-centered therapy.
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behavior therapy
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type of psychotherapy that focuses on directly changing maladaptive behavior patterns by using basic learning principles and techniques; also called behavior modification.
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counterconditioning
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behavior therapy technique based on classical conditioning that involves modifying
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Psychotherapy interested in psychological causes, biomedical concerned with symptoms uses drugs
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Psychotherapy v biomedical approach
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helps people who want to be helped, therapist factors, needs a support system, found to be more effective than no therapy at all. Treat symptoms better
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Psychotherapy effectiveness
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systematic desensitization
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behavior therapy technique in which phobic responses are reduced by pairing relaxation with a series of mental images or real-life situations that the person finds progressively more fear-provoking; based on pricniple of counter conditioning
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bell and pad treatment
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behavior therapy technique used to treat nighttime bedwetting by conditioning arousal from sleep in response to bodily signals of a full bladder. Form of classical conditioning.
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aversive conditioning
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relatively ineffective type of therapy that involves repeatedly pairing an aversive stimulus with the occurrence of undesirable behaviors or thoughts.
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token economy
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form of behavior therapy in which the therapuetic environment is structured to reward desired behaviors with tokens or points that may eventually be exchanged for tangible rewards.
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cognitive therapies
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change or eliminate irrational or distorted thoughts and perceptions. group of psychotherapies based on the assumption that psychological problems are due to maladaptive patterns of thinking.Treatment focuses on recognizing and altering these unhealthy thinking patterns.
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Rational Emotive Therapy- Albert Ellis
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focuses on changing irrational beliefs. Very directive therapy with challenging beliefs. Guiding client by having them monitor thoughts and test if their thoughts make sense. Relies on using confrontational and direct, logical persuasion to reason and push client to surrendering irrational beliefs
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Activating Event occurs a persons beliefs about that event cause emotional Consequences.
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ABC
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arbitrary influence
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drawing a negative conclusion when there is little or no evidence to support it
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selective abstraction
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focusing on a single negative detail taken out of context; ignoring the more important aspects of the situation.
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personalization
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taking responsibility, blaming oneself or applying external events to oneself when there is no basis or evidence or making the connection
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cognitive therapy (CT)
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Beck. Teach client to monitor thoughts test for accuracy and correct if necessary. To have source of unrealistic, distorted perceptions/interpretations of events due to cognitive biases. Goal- have accurate and realistic perception of self, others, and external events.
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cognitive behavioral therapy
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therapy that integrates cognitive and behavioral techniques and that is based on the assumption that thoughts, moods and behaviors are interrelated.
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eye movement desensitization reprocessing
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client holds a vivid mental image of a troubling event or situation while rapidly moving his or her eyes back and forth in response to the therapists moving finger or whil the therapist administers some other form of bilateral stimulation, such as sounding tones in opposite ears.
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exposure therapy
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behavioral therapy for phobias, panic disorder, ptsd, or related anxiety disorders in which the person is repeatedly exposed to the disturbing object or situation under controlled situations.
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eclecticism
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sensible and integrated use of techniques from dif. psychotherapies
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psychotropic medications
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drugs that alter mental functions, alleviate pscyhological symptoms, and are used to treat psychological or mental disorders.
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antipsychotic medications
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prescription drugs that are used to reduce psychotic symptoms, frequently used in the treatment of schizophrenia also called neuroleptics.
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atypical antipsychotic medications
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newer anti psychotic meds that in contrast to the early anti psychotic drugs, block dopamine receptors in brain regions associated with psychotic symptoms rather than more globally throughout the brain, resulting in fewer side effects.
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anti anxiety drugs
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prescription drugs that are used to alleviate the symptoms of anxiety.
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lithium
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naturally occuring substance that is used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. counteracts manic and depressive symptoms in bipolar patients.
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anti depressant meds
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prescription drugs used to reduce the symptoms associated with depression
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selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
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class of anti depressant drugs that increase the availability of serotonin in the brain and cause fewer side effects than earlier antidepressants; include Prozac, Paxil and Zoloft.
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electroconvulsive therapy
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a biomedical therapy used primarily in the treatment of depression that involves electrically inducing a brief brain seizure; also called electroshock therapy
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benzodiazepines
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type of medication that reduces anxiety through increaseing level of gaba in limbic system. Side effects: decreased coordination, reaction time, alertness, addiction.
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Non benzodiazepines
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may take a few weeks to work, doesnt reduce alertness, not addictive.
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Cogntive behavioral therapy
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best success in treatment comes from ____ therapy
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Afranil
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first drug to successfully treat OCD, it is a ssri. est success comes from combining these drugs with cognitive behavior therapy.
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D1 NEURONS
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NEURONS that are involved with motor control
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D2 neurons
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cognition, perceptions, thought to be overproduced in schizophrenia.
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reduce brain dopamine levels with both D1 AND D2 neurons. Slow thinking, motor impariments, slow emotional responsiveness.
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effects of anti psychotic drugs
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tardive dyskinesia
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possible motor side effect that could be permanent with long term use of anti psychotics.
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typical anti psychotics
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anti psychotics that work on both D1 and D2 producing neurons thus have more side effects.
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atypical anti psychotics
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give some relief to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. works exclusively on D2
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first generation
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anti psychotics type trycyclics and MAO inhibitors. Effective for 75% of patients.mao inhibitors have serious psycholocail side effects when taken with some common foods. Tricylics caused weight gain, dry mouth dizziness.
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tegretol and depakote
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anti convulsion drugs. increaseds norepinephrine and causes a manic state.
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Genuineness, Unconditional positive regard, empathetic understanding
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Therapeutic Conditions
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genuineness
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therapist openly shares thoughts without defensiveness
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in vivo desensitization
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practices relaxation “live” with the actual fear stimulus.
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flooding
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patient is confronted with the fear stimulus and allowed to experience panic.
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clinical psychologist
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holds an academic doctorate (phd) and is required to be licensed to practice. Assess and treats mental, emotional and behavioral disorders. Has expertise in psychological testing and evaluation, diagnosis, psychotherapy research and prevention of mental and emotional disorders. May work in private practices, hospitals or community mental health centers.
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psychiatrist
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holds a medical degree and is recquired to be licensed to practice. has expertise in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental and emotional disorders. often has training in psychotherapy. May prescribe medications, electroconvulsive therapy or medical procedures.
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help client explore and clarity his feelings, thoughts and perceptions. See problems more clearly
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goal of client-centered therapy
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progressive relaxation, anxiety hierarchy, control scene, process of desensitization.
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steps in systematic desensitization
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classical conditioning
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bell and pad treatment of _____ conditioning
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operant conditioning techniques
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desirable behaviors are reinforced with praise, attention and other rewards. From habit, to weight control. Help modify behavior of people who are severely disabled.
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Rational Emotive Therapy RET
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What therapr is this “people are not distrubed by things but rather their view of things” (their interpretation)
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RET
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This therapy Good in overcoming self defeating behaviors (extreme shyness, need for approval)
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negative cognitive bias
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Beck’s viewpoint, people consistently distorting experiences in a negative way
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Cognitive Therapy
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therapy good in treating depression and psychological disorders including ptsd, anxiety disorders, and relationship problems
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Cognitive Behavioral therapy CBT
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along with challenging maladaptive beliefs, therapist uses behavior modification, shaping, reinforcement and modelig to teach problem solving and to change unhealthy behavior problems
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group therapy
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one or more therapists working with several people at the same time o Not good to use with depression. Not successful, because they could think of new ways to become depressed. o Put people with dif phobias together, don’t want to reinforce others behaviors.
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meta analysis
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provides a way of statistically combining the results of individual research studies to reach an overall conclusion
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true
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true or false. Psychotherapy is significantly more effective than no treatment.
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dopamine
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chlorpromazine and resperine (antipsychotic drugs) decrease what_________
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positive symptoms of schizophrenia
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first anti psychotics effectively reduced __________
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atypical antipsychotics
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effectives of these drugs less likely to block dopamine receptors in movement areas of the brain. Effective in treating negative symptoms of schizophrenia- social withdrawal, apathy and flat emotions
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benzodiazepines
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effects of these drugs increase level of Gaba , inhibits transmission of nerve impulses in the brain and slows brain activity. Reduce coordination, alertness and reaction time.May be physically addictive.
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lithium
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side effects of this drug include, poisoning, vomiting, muscle weakness and reduced muscle coordination,
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depakote
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helps treat rapid cycle of bipolar disorder.
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tricyclics and mao inhibitors
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1st generation of anti depressants
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dual action antidepressants
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serzone, celexa, also effect serotonin levels
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ECT
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a method of treating severe depression by administering electrical shock to the head After the introduction of the phenothiazines in the 1950’s the use of___became generally limited to the treatment of severe depression Although controversies concerning the use of ____persist increasing evidence supports its effectiveness in helping people with severe depression, including cases in which depressed people fail to respond to psychotherapy or antidepressant medication
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psycho surgery
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developed by Egas Moniz. Involved surgical severing of nerve pathways linking to the thalamus to the prefrontal lobes of the brain.