Chapter 15: Interpersonal & Organizational Communication: Mastering the Exchange of Information

question

Communication:
answer

→The transfer of information and understanding from one person to another → 81% of a manager’s time in a typical workday is spent communicating → Is the process of transferring information from sender to receiver and the receiver from the way the sender has intended it to be understood. If that does not take place then communication does not take place
question

How the Communication Process Works
answer

Sender: →Person wanting to share information-called a message Receiver: →Person for whom the message is intended Encoding: →Translating a message into understandable symbols or language Decoding: →Interpreting and trying to make sense of the message Medium: →The pathway by which a message travels Feedback: →The receiver expresses his reaction to the sender’s message Noise: →Any disturbance that interferes with the transmission of a message
question

Selecting the Right Medium
answer

Medium richness →Indicates how well a particular medium conveys information and promotes learning Rich medium →Best for non-routine situations and to avoid oversimplification Lean medium →Best for routine situations and to avoid overloading
question

Barriers to Communication
answer

1.Physical barriers: sound, time, space, & so on 2.Semantic barriers: when words matter 3.Personal barriers: individual attributes that hinder communication
question

Semantic Barriers
answer

Semantics: →Study of the meaning of words Jargon:→Terminology specific to a particular profession or group
question

Personal Barriers
answer

→Variable skills in communicating effectively →Variations in how information is processed & interpreted →Variations in trustworthiness & credibility →Oversized egos →Faulty listening skills →Tendency to judge others’ messages →Inability to listen with understanding →Stereotypes and prejudices
question

***Nonverbal Communication
answer

→Consists of messages sent outside of the written or spoken word →Expressed through interpersonal space, eye contact, facial expressions, body movements & gestures, touch, setting and time
question

Example: Women & Communication
answer

There is evidence that women are superior at multitasking and better at relationships, which is important in developing teams →Women are also more willing to share information
question

Formal communication channels
answer

→Follow the chain of command and are recognized as official →Vertical, horizontal, external
question

Informal communication channels
answer

→Develop outside the formal structure and do not follow the chain of command
question

Two forms of Informal Communication Channels
answer

Grapevine →Unofficial communication system of the informal organization Management by wandering around→Term used to describe a manager’s literally wandering around his organization and talking with people across all lines of authority
question

Multi-communicating:
answer

→Represents the use of technology to participate in several interactions at the same time
question

Digital Communication & the New Workplace
answer

Videoconferencing →Uses video and audio links along with computers to enable people in different locations to see, hear, and talk with each other Tele-presence technology →High-definition videoconference systems that simulate face-to-face meetings between users
question

Benefits of Telecommuting:
answer

1.Reduces capital costs 2.Increases flexibility and autonomy for workers 3.Provides a competitive advantage when recruiting 4.Increases job satisfaction 5.Increases productivity 6.Ability to tap into nontraditional workers Telecommuting: Working from home which is virtually like working from the office Teleworking: Working from the office.
question

Downside of the Digital Age
answer

Security →A system of safeguards for protecting information technology against disasters, system failures, and unauthorized access that result in damage or loss Identity Theft→Thieves hijack your name and identity and use your good credit rating to get cash or buy things
question

Disadvantages of E-Mail
answer

1.Has been a decrease in all other forms of communication among co-workers—including greetings and informal conversations 2.Emotions often are poorly communicated or miscommunicated via e-mail messages 3.The greater the use of e-mail, the less connected co-workers reportedly feel.
question

Smartphones: Use & Abuse
answer

→Cell phones are now mostly smartphones →As smartphones develop more features and make available more applications, their importance will only increase
question

Five Rules for Using Smartphones (table 15.8)
answer

1.Keep the volume of your voice down while on the phone; no need to SHOUT 2.Don’t force defenseless others on busses, in restaurants, and so on to have to listen to your phone conversations 3.Shut off your ringer during meetings and public performances, set the phone on vibrate and return calls at a discreet distance 4.Don’t text during meetings or other conversations 5.Don’t dial/text while driving
question

Social Media: Pros & Cons
answer

Social media:→Internet-based and mobile technologies used to generate interactive dialogue with members of a network
question

Some Business Benefits of Social Media: Crowdsourcing
answer

Crowdsourcing→The practice of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people and especially from the online community, such as Facebook and Twitter users
question

The Downside of Social Media
answer

→Distraction →Leaving Wrong Impression →Replacing Real Conversation
question

What ‘s Your Listening Style — or Styles?
answer

Appreciative style: →Listening to be amused Empathic style: →Tuning into the speaker ‘ s emotions Comprehensive style:→Focusing on the speaker ‘ s logic Discerning style:→Focusing on the main message Evaluative style: →Challenging the speaker
question

Six Keys to Effective Listening (15.10)
answer

1.Don’t Rush To Respond: Don’t think about what you’re doing to say until the other person has finished talking. 2.Judge Content, Not Delivery: Don’t tune out someone because of his or her accent, clothing mannerisms, personality, or speaking style. 3.Ask Questions, Summarize Remarks: Good listening is hard work. Ask questions to make sure you understand. Recap what the speaker said 4.Listen For Ideas: Don’t get diverted by the details, try to concentrate on the main ideas 5.Resist Distractions, Show Interest: Don’t get distracted by things other people are doing, paperwork on your desk, things happening outside the window, television or radio, and the like. Show the speaker you’re listening, periodically restating in your own words what you’ve heard. 6.Give A Fair Hearing: Don’t shit out unfavorable information just because you hear a term-\”Republican, -Democrat, -union, big business, affirmative action, corporate welfare →that suggests ideas you’re not comfortable with. Try to correct for your biases.
question

Being an Effective Reader
answer

→Realize that speed-reading doesn’t work →Learn to streamline reading →Do top-down reading – SQ3R
question

Learn to Streamline Reading
answer

→Be savvy about periodicals and books →Transfer your reading load →Make internal memos and e-mail more efficient
question

Five Steps to Better Reading (15.11)
answer

1.Rate Reasons to Read: Rate your reasons for reading (\”why should I read this? Will reading it contribute to my goals?\”) 2.Question and Predict Answers: Formulate specific questions you want the reading to answer. This will give you reasons for reading-to get answers to your questions 3.Survey The Big Picture: Survey the material to be read so you can get a sense of the whole. Take a few minutes to get an overview so that you’ll be better able to read with purpose. 4.Skim For Main Ideas: Skimming the material is similar to surveying, except its on a smaller scale. You look for the essence of each subsection or paragraph. 5.Summarize: Summarize as you skim. Verbally restate or write notes of the main points, using your own words. Visualize or stretch the main points. Answer your initial question as you skim the material.
question

Being an Effective Writer
answer

→Don’t show your ignorance →Understand your strategy before you write →Start with your purpose →Write simply, concisely, and directly →Telegraph your writing with a powerful layout
question

Being an Effective Speaker
answer

1.Tell them what you’re going to say 2.Say it 3.Tell them what you said

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member