CHAPTER 14 The Origin of Species

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
speciation
process by which one species splits into two more more species
biological species concept
definition of a species as a population or group of populations whose members can breed with one another in nature and produce fertile offspring
reproductive isolation
condition in which a reproductive barrier keeps two species from interbreeding
phylogenetic species concept
A definition of species as the smallest group of individuals that share a common ancestor, forming one branch on the tree of life.
prezygotic barriers
prevent mating or fertilization between species
prezygotic barriers
habitat, behavioral, temporal, mechanical, and gametic isolation
prezygotic barrier pnemonic
his bad temper made graves
postzygotic barriers
a reproductive barrier that prevent hybrid zygotes produced by two different species from developing into viable, fertile adults
allopatric speciation
The formation of new species in populations that are geographically isolated from one another.
sympatric speciation
The formation of new species in populations that live in the same geographic area
adaptive radiation
evolution from a common ancestor of many species adapted to diverse environments
Peter and Rosemary Grant
watched evolution in finches (observed beak size in finches) on Daphne Major in Galapagos Islands
hybrid zones
areas where diverging allopatric populations come back into contact and members of the different species interbreed
reinforcement
selection for species-recognition traits that prevent hybridization
disruptive selection
natural selection that favors individuals with either extreme of a trait, natural selection that favors individuals with either extreme of a trait; tends to eliminate intermediate phenotypes. reinforcement is an example.
dispersal
separation of a species from another.
island biogeography
The study of rates of colonization and extinction of species on islands or other isolated areas based on size, shape, and distance from other inhabited regions
F.W. Preston
he developed equations for island biogeography
Equilibrium Number of Species
Point where colonization and extinction intersect
punctuated equilibria
sudden change in evolution followed by a long period of no change.

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