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Chapter 13: Therapy (General Psychology)

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Psychotherapy
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any of a group of therapies used to treat psychological disorders and to improve psychological functioning and adjustment to life
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Psychoanalysis
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a type of psycho dynamic therapy developed by Freud; an intensive and prolonged technique for bringing unconscious conflicts into conscious awareness.
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Free Association
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in psychoanalysis, reporting whatever comes to mind without monitoring its contents.
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Dream Analysis
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in psychoanalysis. interpretation of the underlying true meaning of dreams to reveal unconscious processes.
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Resistance
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in psychoanalysis, the inability or unwillingness of a patient to discuss or reveal certain memories, thoughts, motives, or experiences.
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Transference
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in psychoanalysis, the process by which a client attaches (transfers) to a therapist feeling formerly held toward some significant person who figured in a past emotional conflict.
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Interpretation
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a psychoanalyst’s explanation of a patients free association, dreams, resistance, and transference; more that presents a patient’s problem in a new way.
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Psycho dynamic Therapy
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a type of therapy that focuses on conscious processes and current problems; a briefer, more directive, and more modern form of psychoanalysis.
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Humanistic Therapy
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a type of therapy that emphasizes maximizing a client’s inherent capacity for self-actualization by providing a non-judgmental, accepting atmosphere.
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Client-centered Therapy
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Roger’s humanistic approach to therapy, which emphasizes the client’s natural tendency to become healthy and productive; techniques include empathy, unconditional positive regard, genuineness, and active listening.
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Empathy
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In Roger’s terms, an insightful awareness and ability to share another’s inner experience.
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Unconditional Positive Regard
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Roger’s term for complete love and acceptance of another, such as a parent for a child, with no conditions attached.
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Genuineness
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In Rogerian terms, authenticity or congruence; the awareness of one’s true inner thoughts and feelings and being able to share them honestly with others.
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Active Listening
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listening with total attention to what another is saying; it includes reflecting, paraphrasing, and clarifying what the person says and means.
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Cognitive Therapy
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a type of therapy that treats problems, behaviors, and mental processes by focusing on faulty thought processes and beliefs.
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Cognitive Restructuring
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a process in cognitive therapy that is designed to change destructive thoughts or inappropriate interpretations.
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Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
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Ellis’s cognitive therapy that focuses on eliminating irrational emotional reactions through logic, confrontation, and examination of irrational beliefs.
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Cognitive-Behavior Therapy (CBT)
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a type of therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing faulty thinking) with behavior therapy (changing maladaptive behaviors).
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Behavior Therapy
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a group of techniques based on learning principles to change maladaptive behaviors.
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Systematic Desensitization
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a behavioral therapy technique in which a client learns to prevent the arousal of anxiety by gradually confronting the feared stimulus while relaxed.
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Aversion Therapy
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a type of behavioral therapy characterized by the pairing of an aversion (unpleasant) stimulus with a maladaptive behavior in order to elicit a negative reaction to the target stimulus.
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Modeling Therapy
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a type of therapy characterized by watching and imitating models that demonstrate desirable behaviors.
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Bio-medical Therapy
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a treatment for psychological disorders that alters brain functioning with biological or physical interventions (for example, drugs, electro convulsive therapy, psycho-surgery).
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Psycho pharmacology
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the study of the effect of drugs on behavior and mental processes.
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Anti anxiety drugs
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medications used to reduce anxiety and decrease over aroused in the brain.
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Anti psychotic drugs
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medications used to diminish or eliminate hallucinations, delusions, withdrawal, and other symptoms of psychosis; also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers.
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Mood-stabilizer drugs
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medications used to treat the combination of manic episodes and depression characteristic of bipolar disorders.
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Anti depressant drugs
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medications used to treat depression, some anxiety disorders, and certain eating disorders (such as bulimia).
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Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
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a bio medical therapy based on passing electrical current through the brain; it is used almost exclusively to treat serious depression when drug therapy fails.
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Psycho surgery
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a neurosurgical alternation of the brain to bring about desirable behavioral, cognitive or emotional changes, which is generally used when patients have not responded to other forms of treatment; also called neurosurgery for mental disorder (NMD).
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Lobotomy
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an outmoded neurosurgical procedure for mental disorders, which involved cutting nerve pathways between the frontal lobes and the thalamus and hypothalamus.
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Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)
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a bio medical treatments that uses repeated magnetic field pulses targeted at specific areas of the brain.
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Eclectic approach
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a perspective on therapy that combines techniques from various theories to find the most appropriate treatment.
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Group Therapy
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a form of therapy in which a number of people meet together to work toward therapeutic goals.
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Self-help group
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a leaderless or non professionally guided group in which members assist each other with a specific problem, as in Alcoholics Anonymous.
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Maladaptation
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is a trait that is (or has become) more harmful than helpful in contrast with an adaptation, which is more helpful than harmful.
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Adaptive behavior
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is a type of behavior that is used to adjust to another type of behavior or situation.
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Neuroleptic
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a term that refers to the effects of anti psychotic drugs on a patient, especially on his or her cognition and behavior.
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Bulimia
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a serious eating disorder marked by bringing, followed by methods to avoid weight gain.
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Bipolar disorder/manic depression
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is a mental illness characterized by periods of depression and periods of elevated mood.