Please enter something

Chapter 13 respiratory system

question

The Nose
answer

-Interior of the nose consists of nasal cavity divided by the fugging nasal septum. – The fugging olfactory receptors are located here – lateral walls are called the fugging CONCHAE and it increases the surface area and air turbulence in the cavity. – the nasal cavity is surrounded by Paranasal sinuses.
question

The pharynx
answer

– Commonly known as the throat, serves as a passageway for our wonderful food and air. – 3 regions: Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, and Layngopharynx. – Clusters of lymphatic tissues called tonsils are located here: 1. Pharyngeal tonsils (adenoid) 2. palantine tonsils 3. Lingual tonsils Tonsillitis- Pharyngeal tonsils become inflamed and swollen, it obstructs the nasopharynx and force dude to breath through mouth
question

The Larynx
answer

– Commonly known as the voice box, routes air and food into proper channels -Plays a role in speech – The largest hyaline cartilage is the Thyroid cartilage aka adam’s apple. – The Epiglottis protect the superior opening of the Larynx – Vocal cords vibrate with expelled air to make sounds. – Glottis is the opening between vocal cords
question

The Trachea
answer

– Commonly known as the windpipe – Lined with ciliated mucosa which beats continuously in the opposite direction of incoming air. Expels mucus loaded with dust and other debris away from the lungs.
question

The main (Primary) Bronchi
answer

– formed by the division of the trachea -Each main bronchus enters the lung at the hilum – Bronchi subdivides into smaller and smaller branches- Primary secondary, tertiary Bronchus – the right bronchus is wider, shorter, and straighter than the left. Thus it is more common site for an inhaled foreign object to be lodged – smaller branches of upside tree are called Bronchioles- narrowing to Alveolar ducts- then to tiny alveolar sacs – Each sacs contain clusters of Alveoli, lined with simple squamous epithelium- where gas exchange occurs
question

The lungs
answer

– Occupies the entire thoracic cavity area except the mediastinum which houses the heart, great blood vessels, bronchi, esophagus. – The surface of each lungs is covered with visceral pleura. and the parietal pleura is the outer membrane of the thoracic cavity –
question

The Respiratory system consists of 2 zones
answer

– The conducting zone- all other respiratory passageway – The respiratory zone- site of gas exchange ( bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli)
question

Respiratory Membrane
answer

– Walls of alveoli are REALLY thin layer of squamous epithelium – Alveolar pores connect neighboring air sacs and provide alternative routes for air – pulmonary capillaries cover external surfaces of alveoli – On one side of the membrane is air and the other side is blood flowing past – Gas exchange occurs by simple diffusion. Oxygen is passing from the alveolar air into the capillary blood and carbon dioxide leaving the blood to enter the gas filled alveoli. – FINALLY as the final line of defense, the Alveolar macrophages add protection by picking up bacteria.
question

Four events of Respiration
answer

1. Pulmonary Ventilation- Moving air in and out of the lungs aka Breathing 2. External Respiration- Gas exchange are being made between the alveoli and the pulmonary blood. 3. Respiratory Gas Transport- Transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide via the blood stream. 4. Internal Respiration- Gas exchange between the tissue cells and blood stream
question

Pulmonary Ventilation as mechanics of breathing
answer

– Pulmonary ventilation is a completely mechanical process. RULE TO KEEP IN MIND- Volume changes lead to pressure changes, which leads to the flow of gases to equalize pressure For example: – In a large volume, the gas molecules are far apart, thus pressure will be low. – In a low volume, the gas molecules will be closer together, and the pressure will rise.
question

Inspiration
answer

– Inhalation – Diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract and the size of the thoracic cavity increases. – External air is pulled in because of the Increase in volume and decrease of pressure
question

Expiration
answer

– Exhalation – Largely a relaxed process – Air is pushed out because of the decrease in volume and increase in gas pressure. – Forced expiration can occur mostly by contracting the internal intercostal muscles to depress the rib cage – The normal pressure within the pleural space is always negative (intrapleural pressure). This difference in lung and pleural space pressure keeps the lungs from collapsing.
question

Respiratory Volume and Capacities
answer

– Many factors affect the respiratory capacity such as age, sex, size, and physical condition. – Tidal volume- Normal quiet breathing moves approximately 500 ml of air into and out of the lungs. – Inspiratory reserve volume- amount of air that can forcibly taken in over tidal volume. Approximately 3100 ml. – Expiratory reserve volume- The amount of air forcibly exhaled after tidal volume. Approximately 1200 ml. – Residual Volume- Even after strenuous expiration, about 1200 ml of air remains in the lungs and IT CANNOT BE EXPELLED. Allows continuation of gas exchange. – Vital Capacity- The total amount that can be moved in and out of a healthy person. 4800 ml~3100 ml.
question

Respiratory Sounds
answer

– 2 Sounds monitored with a stethoscope – Bronchial sounds- Produced by air rushing through the trachea and bronchi – Vesicular sounds- soft sounds of air filling alveoli
question

Gas transport of external Respiration
answer

The Oxygen is loaded into the blood – The alveoli has more oxygen than the blood. – Oxygen moves by diffusion towards the area of lower concentration. – The pulmonary capillary gains the oxygen The CO2 is unloaded of the blood – There is more CO2 in blood from tissues than the alveoli – because the concentration of CO2 is higher in the pulmonary capillaries, it will move from the blood into the alveoli and be flushed out during expiration – blood leaving lungs is oxygen rich and carbon dioxide poor
question

Internal Respiration
answer

– Happens in all capillary beds in the body – Exchange of gases between blood and body cells. – Carbon dioxide diffuses out of the tissue cells into the blood – Oxygen diffuses from blood into the tissue cells
question

Gas Transport in blood: OXYGEN
answer

– most oxygen is transported in the blood, attached to hemoglobin to from OXYHEMOGLOBIN (HBO2) – a very small amount of oxygen is transported in the plasma.
question

Gas Transport in blood: CARBON DIOXIDE
answer

– ~70 % transport as bicarbonate ions in the plasma (HCO3-) – about 20- 30 % of CO2 is carried inside the RBC bound to hemoglobin. – ~7% dissolved in plasma – before CO2 can diffuse out of the blood into the alveoli, it must be released from its bicarbonate iron form. // Bicarbonate ions must enter the RBC where they combine with Hydrogen ions (H+) to form carbonic acid. (h2CO3). Carbonic acid quickly splits to form water and carbon dioxide, and carbon dioxide then diffuses from the blood to the alveoli. In Systemic capillaries- Co2 diffuses into the RBC, and attach to H20 forming H2CO3 which breaks into HCO3- and H+. The bicarbonate quickly leaves to the plasma and Chloride rushes in. In pulmonary capillaries- HCO3- moves into RBC and binds with H+ to form H2CO3. Which is split by CarbonicAnhydrase into Co2 and Water. Co2 diffuses out of the RBC into the alveoli
question

neural regulation of respiratory
answer

– The activity of the respiratory muscles is regulated by the PHRENIC and INTERCOSTAL NERVES. – NEURAL CENTERS CONTROL RHYTHM AND DEPTH OF BREATHING IS LOCATED IN MEDULLA AND PONS. – MEDULLA SETS BASIC RHYTHM OF BREATHING -PONS SMOOTHENS OUR BREATHING EUPNEA IS THE NORMAL RESPIRATORY RATE- 12-15 RESPIRATIONS/ MINUTES HYPERPNEA- INCREASED RESPIRATORY RATE USUALLY IN EXERCISE DYSPNEA- SHORTNESS OF BREATH
question

Hyperventilation vs. Hypoventilation
answer

Hyperventilation- As Carbon dioxide begins to accumulate in the blood, the blood PH drops making it more acidic. Thus you begin to breath more deeply and rapidly, allowing to get rid of the carbon dioxide and decreasing amount of carbonic acid. Which returns blood PH to normal range. Hypoventilation- When blood becomes more basic, breathing slows down, allowing carbon dioxide to accumulate in blood so blood PH can go back to normal. Increases the amount of carbonic acid.
question

Developmental aspects
answer

In the fetus the lungs are filled with fluid and all respiratory ecxchanges are made in the placenta. – Lungs are not fully inflated with air until 2 weeks after birth. – Surfactant which is made by alveolar cells lowers alveolar surface tension so that lungs do not collapse. Surfactant is not present until late fetal development.
question

Lung cancer
answer

– Leading cause of cancer death in America LIKE REALLY – nearly 90 % of lung cancer comes from smoking 3 common type of lung cancer: -Non small cell lung cancer- most common type – Small Cell carcinoma- tends to spread quickly – lung carcinoid tum0r- grows slowly and rarely spreads.
question

Cystic Fibrosis
answer

– Life threatening genetic disorder – Body produced thick ass sticky mucus that builds up in the bronchi and the pancreas. Causing lung infections and digestive problems.
question

The pharynogotympanic tubes, which drain the middle ear, open into the ________.
answer

– the nasopharynx
question

Even after a forceful expiration, air still remains in the lungs for gas exchange to continue. This volume is about ________.
answer

-1200 ML
question

The C-shaped rings that reinforce the trachea are constructed of ________.
answer

– Hyaline Cartilage
question

Which one of the following is NOT true of inspiration?
answer

– relaxation of the intercostal muscles helps increase the size of the thoracic cavity.
question

Things that happen during inspiration
answer

– the increased intrapulmonary volume causes inhaled gases to spread out. – The decreased gas pressure produces a partial vacuum that forcibly sucks air in. -air continues to move into the lungs until intrapulmonary pressure equals atmospheric pressure -contraction of the diaphragm muscle helps increase the size of the thoracic cavity
question

The gas exchange that occurs between blood and tissue cells at systemic capillaries is called ________.
answer

a. Pulmonary ventilation b. external respiration c. respiratory gas transport d. internal respiration e.expiration answer: D. Internal respiration
question

Hypoventilation dramatically increases carbonic acid concentration and involves ________.
answer

– Extremely slow breathing
question

What is the function of an alveolar macrophage?
answer

– engulf bacteria, carbon particles, and debris NOT :sweep contaminated mucus and dusts from the alveoli
question

Which one of the following structures is NOT part of the respiratory zone?
answer

– The primary bronchi The respiratory zone only includes the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli.
question

1. Pharynx- Passageway for both food and air; known as the “throat” 2. Trachea- Rigid, patent airway reinforced with C-rings of hyaline cartilage 3. Larynx- Routes air and food into their proper channels 4. Epiglottis- Protects the superior opening of the larynx during swallowing
answer

5. Glottis-Opening to the trachea situated between the vocal cords 6. Main (primary) bronchus-First tube to branch off of the trachea 7. BronchiolesSmallest- conducting passageways in the lungs 8. Alveoli-Part of the respiratory zone, these air sacs perform gas exchange
question

The posterior portion of the palate that is not supported by bone is called the ________.
answer

– soft palate
question

The serous membrane covering the surface of the lungs is called the ________.
answer

– Visceral Pleura
question

Expiration (exhalation) occurs when ________.
answer

the diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax
question

Hyperventilation leads to all of the following except ________.
answer

a. buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood b. cyanosis c. fainting d. brief periods of apnea e. dizziness answer: build up of CO2
question

Folds of mucous membrane called ________ vibrate to provide speech.
answer

_ vocal folds, cords
question

1. Inspiratory reserve volume- Amount of air that can be inhaled forcibly over the tidal volume 2. Tidal volume- Normal, quiet breathing which moves approximately 500 mL of air per breath 3. Vital capacity- Sum total of tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, and expiratory reserve volume 4. Vital capacity-Total amount of exchangeable air 5. Residual volume- Air that remains in the lungs even after the most strenuous expiration 6. Dead space volume- Air that enters the respiratory tract and remains within the conducting zone passageways 7. Expiratory reserve volume- Amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after a normal tidal expiration
answer

question

When breathing in, air enters the trachea through the ________.
answer

– glottis
question

During ________, oxygen binds to hemoglobin to form oxyhemoglobin.
answer

– external respiration