Chapter 13 Flashcards Test Answers

question

1.Religious groups began developing asylums in the _____ century. A) 14th B) 15th C) 16th D) 17th
answer

C
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2.In the late 1700s, _____ began reforming the conditions in asylums to make them more humane. A) Dorothea Dix B) Philippe Pinel C) Jean-Paul Broca D) Pierre Flourens
answer

B
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3.Dorothea Dix is to Philippe Pinel as _____ is to _____. A) French Revolution; Renaissance B) moral treatment; mental hygiene C) Renaissance; French Revolution D) mental hygiene; moral treatment
answer

D
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4.Which time period is correctly matched with its development in the history of psychological treatment? A) stone age – creation of asylums B) 16th century – “moral treatment” revolution C) French revolution – trephination D) 19th century – mental hygiene movement
answer

D
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5.During the second half of the 19th century, _____ promoted the mental hygiene movement to reform American asylums. A) Dorothea Dix B) Philippe Pinel C) David Rosenhan D) Albert Ellis
answer

A
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6.The view that psychological normality and abnormality reflect a continuum rather than discrete categories took hold in the: A) late 19th century. B) first half of the 20th century. C) 1950s. D) late 20th century.
answer

B
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7.The first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders was published in the: A) 1940s. B) 1950s. C) 1960s. D) 1970s.
answer

B
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8.In the United States, the deinstitutionalization of patients with psychological disorders began in the: A) 1930s. B) 1940s. C) 1950s. D) 1960s.
answer

C
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9.According to the textbook, “deinstitutionalization was made possible by the introduction of medications that reduced some symptoms of severe psychological disorders.” In other words, advances in _____ therapy paved the way for deinstitutionalization. A) psychodynamic B) behavioral C) insight D) biomedical
answer

D
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10.Roughly how many prison inmates in the United States suffer from mental health problems? A) 500,000 B) 1 million C) 2 million D) 3 million
answer

D
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11.Which figure BEST approximates the proportion of inmates who suffer from some type of mental health problem? A) 25% B) 35% C) 50% D) 65%
answer

C
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12.The textbook states that people often enter a psychiatric ward or hospital when they experience a psychotic episode. Based on this information, hospitalization is probably MOST likely for individuals suffering from: A) a personality disorder. B) schizophrenia. C) panic disorder. D) major depression.
answer

B
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13.Today, the usual length of stay in a psychiatric hospital is: A) less than one month. B) 2 to 3 months. C) about 6 months. D) about 1 year.
answer

A
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14.______ is more colloquially known as “talk therapy.” A) Psychotherapy B) Biomedical therapy C) Behavior therapy D) Psychodynamic therapy
answer

A
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15._____ therapies aim to increase awareness of one’s self and environment. A) Behavioral B) Insight C) Eclectic D) Biomedical
answer

B
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16.Dr. Jarreau is a psychotherapist. Her goal is to develop clients’ self-awareness. Dr. Jarreau is BEST described as a(n) _____ therapist. A) biomedical B) behavior C) insight D) eclectic
answer

C
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17.Dr. Alvarez is a strict Freudian psychoanalyst. Dr. Brown is a non-directive, client- centered humanistic therapist. Dr. Charles is a behavior therapist. Which of these psychologists is an insight therapist? A) Only Dr. Charles is an insight therapist. B) Only Dr. Alvarez is an insight therapist. C) Only Dr. Alvarez and Dr. Brown are insight therapists. D) None of these psychologists are insight therapists.
answer

C
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18.Dr. DeRouen is a psychodynamic therapist. Her colleague, Dr. Ebrahim practices person- centered therapy. Both doctors, though, believe that the goal of therapy is to encourage awareness of inner conflicts, defenses, and motives. Both Dr. DeRouen and Dr. Ebrahim are therefore _____ therapists. A) cognitive B) psychoanalytic C) biomedical D) insight
answer

D
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19.Biomedical therapies do NOT include: A) electroconvulsive therapy. B) psychopharmacology. C) behavior therapy. D) neurosurgery.
answer

C
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20._____ and _____ therapies are both types of _____ therapy. A) Behavior; insight; psychological B) Psychological; behavior; insight C) Psychological; insight; behavioral D) Behavior; insight; biomedical
answer

A
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21.According to some estimates, there are as many as _____ specific types of psychotherapy. A) 50 B) 100 C) 200 D) 500
answer

D
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22.Which approach to psychological therapy is correctly defined? A) psychoanalysis – uses learning principles to replace maladaptive patterns B) behavior therapy – seeks to change maladaptive thought patterns C) humanistic therapy – emphasizes positive growth D) cognitive therapy – seeks to increase awareness of unconscious conflicts
answer

C
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23.When working with families or groups, therapists generally use some type of _____ therapy. A) behavioral B) biomedical C) eclectic D) insight
answer

D
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24.Behavior therapy is a type of _____ therapy that _____. A) insight; uses learning principles B) psychological; uses learning principles C) psychological; changes maladaptive thoughts D) insight; changes maladaptive thoughts
answer

B
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25.Which sequence correctly arranges types of therapy from broadest to most specific? A) insight therapy > psychological therapy > psychoanalysis B) psychological therapy > insight therapy > family therapy C) group therapy > family therapy > insight therapy D) neurosurgery > biomedical therapy > individual therapy
answer

B
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26.Which is the broadest category of therapy? A) psychodynamic therapy B) insight therapy C) humanistic therapy D) biomedical therapy
answer

D
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27.Which is the MOST specific category of therapy? A) psychodynamic therapy B) insight therapy C) individual therapy D) biomedical therapy
answer

A
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28.Up to _____ of therapists now use an integrative, eclectic approach to therapy. A) 25% B) 35% C) 50% D) 80%
answer

C
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29._____ is the therapeutic technique developed by _____. The goal of this type of therapy is to help patients gain insight into repressed impulses and conflicts. A) Psychoanalysis; Sigmund Freud B) Client-centered therapy; Carl Rogers C) Rational-emotive behavior therapy; Albert Ellis D) Cognitive therapy; Aaron Beck
answer

A
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30.Freud proposed that the ego defends the individual against anxiety by pushing sexual and aggressive urges out of consciousness. This defense mechanism is called: A) displacement. B) denial. C) repression. D) projection.
answer

C
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31.Psychoanalysts attempt to access a client’s unconscious through each of these avenues EXCEPT: A) dream analysis. B) resistance and transference. C) aversion therapy. D) free association.
answer

C
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32.Noah dreams that he suddenly becomes paralyzed as he tries to cross a busy intersection. In Freudian terms, this is the _____ content of Noah’s dream. The underlying meaning of the dream is the _____ content. A) manifest; repressed B) manifest; latent C) repressed; manifest D) repressed; latent
answer

B
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33.Jenny has just finished describing one of her dreams to her therapist. Her therapist tells her to say anything and everything that comes to her mind. Jenny’s therapist is using the technique of: A) free association. B) transference. C) interpretation. D) active listening.
answer

A
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34.If a client becomes unwilling to cooperate at key points during therapy, she is demonstrating: A) resistance. B) free association. C) a therapeutic alliance. D) transference.
answer

A
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35.Dalton’s therapist takes careful notes of Dalton’s dreams, as well as his free association responses and his resistance to talk about certain issues. Dalton’s therapist is engaged in: A) active listening. B) systematic desensitization. C) interpretation. D) transference.
answer

C
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36.After telling his psychoanalyst about his relationship with his ex-wife for a few minutes, Jerome suddenly changes the subject. Jerome is exhibiting: A) resistance. B) transference. C) interpretation. D) the Oedipus conflict.
answer

A
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37.During his weekly therapy sessions, Colin finds it very difficult to talk about childhood memories. He often pauses before mentioning embarrassing moments or simply forgets important details. A psychoanalyst would suggest that this illustrates: A) interpretation. B) transference. C) resistance. D) the Oedipus conflict.
answer

C
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38.During her weekly therapy sessions, Sabrina will often abruptly shift the focus of her attention and lose her train of thought. A psychoanalyst would suggest that this illustrates: A) interpretation. B) transference. C) desensitization. D) resistance.
answer

D
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39.What is transference? A) the transfer of a learned response from one task to another similar task B) the transfer of irrational cognitions to the self C) the transfer of strong feelings about parents or authority figures to a therapist D) a behavioral technique invented to facilitate the transfer of learned behaviors from the session to the outside world
answer

C
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40.When a client begins relating to a therapist in the same way she might relate to parents or other important people in her life, she is demonstrating: A) resistance. B) free association. C) a therapeutic alliance. D) transference.
answer

D
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41.During a session, Henry becomes agitated at his therapist, saying that she is controlling, domineering, and trying to ruin his life. A psychoanalyst would say that Henry’s behavior illustrates: A) interpretation. B) transference. C) desensitization. D) resistance.
answer

B
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42.How should a psychoanalyst handle a patient’s transference? A) The therapist should discourage and attempt to minimize the patient’s transference. B) The therapist should encourage transference. C) The therapist should simply ignore the patient’s transference. D) The therapist should refer the patient to another professional toward whom the patient is unlikely to demonstrate transference.
answer

B
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43.Which statement BEST expresses the relationship between psychoanalysis and psychodynamic therapy? A) Psychoanalysis and psychodynamic therapy are the same. B) Psychoanalysis was developed by Freud, whereas psychodynamic therapy was developed by Jung C) Psychoanalysis has largely supplanted traditional psychodynamic therapy. D) Psychodynamic therapy is a contemporary version of psychoanalysis.
answer

D
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44.How does psychodynamic therapy differ from traditional psychoanalysis? A) Psychodynamic therapy lasts longer than psychoanalysis. B) Psychodynamic therapy is more narrowly focused, targeting specific, current problems. C) There is more client-therapist interaction in psychoanalysis than in psychodynamic therapy. D) The therapist uses a more indirect approach in psychodynamic therapy than in psychoanalysis.
answer

B
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45.Psychodynamic therapy is probably NOT an effective form of treatment for: A) depression. B) eating disorders. C) borderline personality disorder. D) schizophrenia.
answer

D
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46.One disadvantage of psychodynamic therapy is that it: A) is appropriate for only a few psychological disorders. B) yields only short-term benefits. C) requires high verbal ability and self-awareness. D) may last for years.
answer

C
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47.Humanistic therapy began to take root in the: A) 1940s. B) 1950s. C) 1960s. D) 1970s.
answer

B
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48.Humanistic therapy began as a reaction to: A) insight therapy. B) biomedical therapy. C) behavior therapy. D) psychoanalysis.
answer

D
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49.The therapist MOST closely associated with the humanistic movement is: A) Aaron Beck. B) Albert Ellis. C) Carl Rogers. D) Sigmund Freud.
answer

C
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50._____ therapy is a type of insight therapy that emphasizes the positive aspects of people’s nature. A) Humanistic B) Psychodynamic C) Behavioral D) Psychoanalytic
answer

A
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51.Compared to psychoanalysis, humanistic therapy is _____ likely to focus on the present rather than the past, and _____ likely to focus on the conscious rather than the unconscious mind. A) less; less B) less; more C) more; less D) more; more
answer

D
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52.Person-centered therapy is one type of _____ therapy. A) humanistic B) psychoanalytic C) psychodynamic D) behavioral
answer

A
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53.Person-centered therapy is the brand of humanistic therapy developed by: A) Abraham Maslow. B) Aaron Beck. C) Carl Rogers. D) Albert Ellis.
answer

C
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54.Carl Rogers is to _____ therapy as _____ is to rational-emotive behavior therapy. A) cognitive behavioral; Albert Ellis B) cognitive behavioral; Aaron Beck C) person-centered; Albert Ellis D) person-centered; Aaron Beck
answer

C
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55.Carl Rogers was a key figure in all of these EXCEPT: A) insight therapy. B) person-centered therapy. C) psychodynamic therapy. D) humanistic therapy.
answer

C
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56.Person-centered therapists are _____; that is, they follow the client’s lead during the session. A) nondirective B) reactive C) directive D) transactional
answer

A
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57.In person-centered therapy, the therapist: A) challenges the client’s irrational statements. B) teaches the client relaxation responses. C) silently writes notes on a small pad. D) clarifies and reflects back the client’s statements.
answer

D
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58.Michaela’s therapist is an active listener who often paraphrases what she says. He does not judge her and is quite open to her exploration of her weaknesses. He gives her appropriate validation and encourages her to reflect on her feelings. He wants to deepen her self-understanding. Her therapy is MOST likely: A) behavior therapy. B) cognitive therapy. C) psychoanalysis. D) person-centered therapy.
answer

D
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59.Chelsea’s therapist uses active listening in an empathetic environment. Her therapist is MOST likely using _____ therapy. A) person-centered B) rational-emotive behavior C) aversion D) psychodynamic
answer

A
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60.Malika sees her therapist every other week. When she is at her therapist’s office, she feels accepted and can share anything. While her therapist listens to what Malika has to say without judgment, he also seeks understanding by paraphrasing as well as asking for clarification. Malika’s therapist is practicing: A) exposure therapy. B) rational-emotive behavior therapy. C) psychoanalysis. D) person-centered therapy.
answer

D
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61._____ emphasized the importance of active listening during psychotherapy. A) Aaron Beck B) Sigmund Freud C) Carl Rogers D) Albert Ellis
answer

C
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62.Person-centered therapists use a type of empathetic listening called _____ listening. A) active B) nondirective C) directive D) passive
answer

A
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63.Which adjective MOST nearly captures the essence of unconditional positive regard? A) accepting B) empathetic C) authentic D) challenging
answer

A
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64.While Justin’s therapist listens to what he has to say without judgment, she also seeks understanding by paraphrasing as well as asking for clarification and then reflecting Justin’s feelings. Justin’s therapist is using a therapeutic technique known as: A) active listening. B) free association. C) interpretation. D) transference.
answer

A
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65.Insight therapies do NOT include: A) psychodynamic therapy. B) behavior therapy. C) psychoanalysis. D) humanistic therapy.
answer

B
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66.The aim of _____ therapy is to replace maladaptive behaviors by applying learning principles. A) biomedical B) psychodynamic C) behavior D) cognitive
answer

C
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67.According to a behavior therapist, how are psychological disorders treated MOST effectively? A) The client must learn new responses. B) Maladaptive thought patterns should be challenged or changed. C) Unconscious conflicts should be brought to light. D) Neurotransmitter irregularities should be rectified through drugs.
answer

A
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68._____ is used to treat phobias by presenting clients with the feared objects or situations in a no-risk context. A) Behavior modification B) Exposure C) Systematic desensitization D) Aversion therapy
answer

B
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69.A therapist helps Rebecca overcome her fear of water by getting her to swim in the family’s backyard pool three times a day for two consecutive weeks. The therapist’s approach to helping Rebecca BEST illustrates: A) systematic desensitization. B) exposure. C) aversion therapy. D) rational-emotive behavior therapy.
answer

B
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70._____ progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking. A) Aversion therapy B) Electroconvulsive therapy C) Systematic desensitization D) Virtual reality exposure therapy
answer

D
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71.Behavior therapists often treat phobias by using: A) behavior modification. B) rational-emotive behavior therapy. C) systematic desensitization. D) aversion therapy.
answer

C
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72.In _____, a pleasant relaxed state is associated with increasingly intense anxiety- provoking stimuli. A) aversion therapy B) systematic desensitization C) person-centered therapy D) behavior modification
answer

B
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73.Exposure + anxiety hierarchy = _____. A) aversion therapy B) cognitive therapy C) systematic desensitization D) behavior modification
answer

C
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74.An anxiety hierarchy is used in: A) aversion therapy. B) systematic desensitization. C) exposure. D) behavior modification.
answer

B
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75.How does exposure differ from systematic desensitization? A) Exposure does not proceed through a hierarchy of anxiety-provoking stimuli; systematic desensitization does. B) Exposure proceeds through a hierarchy of anxiety-provoking stimuli; systematic desensitization does not. C) Exposure does not use aversive stimuli; systematic desensitization does. D) Exposure uses aversive stimuli; systematic desensitization does not.
answer

A
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76.To help Tom reduce his fear of flying, a therapist encourages him to physically relax and then simply imagine that he is taking off in an airplane. The therapist’s technique BEST illustrates: A) systematic desensitization. B) exposure. C) aversion therapy. D) rational-emotive therapy.
answer

A
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77.To help Alfredo reduce his fear of dogs, a therapist encourages him to physically relax and imagine that he is walking toward a friendly, harmless little dog. The therapist’s technique BEST illustrates: A) aversion therapy. B) exposure. C) systematic desensitization. D) cognitive therapy.
answer

C
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78.In _____, the goal is to replace a positive response to a harmful stimulus with a negative one. A) systematic desensitization B) exposure C) aversion therapy D) psychoanalysis
answer

C
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79._____ therapy associates an unpleasant state, such as nausea, with an unwanted behavior, such as drinking alcohol. A) Aversion B) Exposure C) Cognitive D) Rational-emotive behavior
answer

A
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80.Giovanni abuses cocaine; Hans has a dog phobia. Which choice correctly identifies the behavioral treatment MOST appropriate for each of these individuals? A) Giovanni – systematic desensitization; Hans – aversion therapy or exposure B) Giovanni – systematic desensitization or exposure; Hans – aversion therapy C) Giovanni – aversion therapy; Hans – systematic desensitization or exposure D) Giovanni – exposure; Hans – aversion therapy or systematic desensitization
answer

C
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81.To help Jacob overcome his smoking habit, a therapist has him smoke cigarettes laced with a chemical that induces nausea. In addition, she displays gruesome images of lung cancer on the walls while Jacob is smoking. This approach to treatment BEST illustrates: A) behavior modification. B) systematic desensitization. C) exposure. D) aversion therapy.
answer

D
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82.To help Monica overcome her nearly irresistible craving for chocolate, a therapist provides her with a supply of chocolate candies that contain solidified droplets of a harmless but very bitter-tasting substance. This approach to treatment BEST illustrates: A) behavior modification. B) aversion therapy. C) exposure. D) systematic desensitization.
answer

B
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83.Which behavior therapy technique is correctly matched with its description? A) aversion therapy – Adaptive behaviors are shaped through reinforcement and punishment. B) systematic desensitization – Gradual exposure to an anxiety-provoking stimulus is paired with relaxation. C) exposure – An unpleasant stimulus is paired with an undesirable behavior of the client. D) behavior modification – The client is confronted with the object of his or her phobia.
answer

B
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84.Reinforcing desirable behaviors and punishing undesirable ones is known as: A) systematic desensitization. B) exposure. C) aversion therapy. D) behavior modification.
answer

D
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85.In one application of aversive conditioning, alcohol is paired with a drug that induces vomiting. Which choice correctly applies classical conditioning terminology to this situation? A) Alcohol becomes a CS associated with vomiting. B) Alcohol becomes a US for vomiting. C) The drug with which alcohol is paired is a CS. D) Vomiting in response to the alcohol is a UR.
answer

A
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86.Recall the terminology of classical conditioning. In systematic desensitization, relaxation is BEST seen as a new: A) CR. B) CS. C) UR. D) US.
answer

A
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87.The token economy is a type of: A) exposure. B) systematic desensitization. C) aversion therapy. D) behavior modification.
answer

D
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88.A token economy applies _____ to modify behaviors by reinforcing desired behaviors with tokens that can be exchanged for various treats. A) operant conditioning B) latent learning C) observational learning D) classical conditioning
answer

A
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89.The power of positive reinforcement underlies: A) the token economy. B) systematic desensitization. C) aversion therapy. D) exposure.
answer

A
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90.In an eating disorders clinic, the patients receive merits for appropriate behaviors on the unit and for good eating behaviors such as finishing their meals. This BEST illustrates an application of: A) systematic desensitization. B) a token economy. C) aversion therapy. D) exposure.
answer

B
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91.In a residential treatment facility for troubled youth, adolescent children receive large colored buttons when they hang up their clothes, make their beds, and come to meals on time. The children return the buttons to staff members to receive bedtime snacks or watch television. This BEST illustrates an application of: A) insight therapy. B) observational learning. C) operant conditioning. D) classical conditioning.
answer

C
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92.Which of these is NOT a classical conditioning technique? A) exposure B) systematic desensitization C) the token economy D) aversion therapy
answer

C
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93.Operant conditioning is to classical conditioning as _____ is to _____. A) the token economy; aversion therapy B) systematic desensitization; behavior modification C) behavior modification; the token economy D) exposure; systematic desensitization
answer

A
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94.Cognitive therapy was initially advanced by: A) Aaron Beck. B) Carl Rogers. C) Albert Ellis. D) Alfred Adler.
answer

A
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95.Aaron Beck was originally trained in _____ therapy. He later went on to develop _____ therapy. A) humanistic; behavioral B) humanistic; cognitive C) psychoanalytic; behavioral D) psychoanalytic; cognitive
answer

D
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96.Cognitive therapists believe that psychological disorders reflect: A) maladaptive behaviors. B) feelings of isolation and stagnation. C) distortions in thinking. D) unconscious conflicts.
answer

C
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97.Coming to a conclusion when there is no evidence to support it is a cognitive distortion called: A) selective abstraction. B) overgeneralizing. C) personalizing. D) arbitrary inference.
answer

D
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98.Making assumptions based on details taken out of context is a cognitive distortion called: A) selective abstraction. B) personalizing. C) dichotomous thinking. D) minimizing.
answer

A
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99.Becca seems to see things in black-and-white extremes. A cognitive therapist would suspect that Becca is prone to: A) overgeneralization. B) dichotomous thinking. C) selective abstraction. D) arbitrary inference.
answer

B
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100.The erroneous belief that self-contained events will have major repercussions in one’s life is called: A) personalizing. B) magnification. C) overgeneralization. D) selective abstraction.
answer

C
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101.Marcel receives an 87 on the second midterm in his calculus course—the first time he has ever received anything less than an A in any course. Marcel now believes he will never succeed in math courses. Marcel is demonstrating: A) overgeneralization. B) arbitrary inference. C) personalizing. D) minimization.
answer

A
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102.Beck argued that cognitive schema underlie distorted thought patterns. Beck’s assertion reflects the intellectual legacy of the pioneering developmental psychologist: A) Diana Baumrind. B) Erik Erikson. C) Laurence Kohlberg. D) Jean Piaget.
answer

D
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103.Aaron Beck is to Albert Ellis as _____ therapy is to _____ therapy. A) rational-emotive behavior; cognitive B) cognitive; person-centered C) cognitive; rational-emotive behavior D) person-centered; rational-emotive behavior
answer

C
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104._____ therapy encourages clients to challenge their irrational, unrealistic beliefs. A) Person-centered B) Rational-emotive behavior C) Aversion D) Exposure
answer

B
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105.Which term in Ellis’ A-B-C model is correctly illustrated with an example? A) Activating condition – a midterm test is scheduled for next week B) irrational Belief – extreme anxiety C) emotional Consequences – “Either a “B” or an “A” is an acceptable grade.” D) Disputing flawed beliefs – “I must get the top score in the class, a perfect score.”
answer

A
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106.A television talk show therapist remarks, “Depression is the emotional result of irrational thoughts.” The therapist’s statement BEST reflects the position of: A) Abraham Maslow. B) Carl Rogers. C) Albert Ellis. D) Aaron Beck.
answer

C
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107.The goal of rational-emotive behavior therapy is to encourage: A) positive thinking. B) self-acceptance. C) adaptive behavior. D) healthy relationships.
answer

B
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108.Both cognitive therapy and rational-emotive behavior therapy are sometimes called _____ therapy. A) behavioral B) cognitive behavioral C) insight D) person-centered
answer

B
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109.For social phobia and generalized anxiety disorder, _____ therapy appears superior to _____ therapy. A) exposure; cognitive behavioral B) cognitive; rational-emotive behavior C) rational-emotive behavior; cognitive D) cognitive behavioral; exposure
answer

D
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110.Which statement is true? A) Cognitive therapy is superior to rational-emotive behavior therapy in most instances. B) Cognitive therapy is superior to rational-emotive behavior therapy in some instances. C) Rational-emotive behavior therapy is superior to cognitive therapy in most instances. D) No differences in effectiveness have been found between rational-emotive behavior therapy and cognitive therapy.
answer

B
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111.Group therapy was first developed in the: A) 1930s. B) 1940s. C) 1950s. D) 1960s.
answer

B
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112.Which statement is true? A) Group therapists usually take a humanistic approach. B) Group therapists may take any of the major theoretical approaches to therapy. C) Group therapy is usually psychoanalytic in nature. D) Most group therapists are cognitive therapists.
answer

B
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113.Most often, group therapy sessions involve _____ members. A) 2 or 3 B) 3 to 6 C) 3 to 10 D) 10 to 15
answer

C
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114.Compared to individual therapy, group therapy is _____ effective. A) much less B) somewhat less C) just as D) more
answer

C
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115.Group therapy is the preferred treatment approach for: A) schizophrenia. B) personality disorders. C) specific phobias. D) interpersonal problems.
answer

D
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116.Which is NOT one of the terms used to refer to groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous and Parents without Partners? A) self-help groups B) therapeutic groups C) support groups D) mutual help groups
answer

B
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117._____ sessions are often led by trained paraprofessionals rather than by mental health professionals. A) Family therapy B) Couples therapy C) Group therapy D) Self-help group
answer

D
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118.Family therapy was first developed in the: A) 1940s. B) 1950s. C) 1960s. D) 1970s.
answer

A
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119.Improving conflict management and communication skills is one of the main objectives of: A) couples therapy. B) group therapy. C) self-help groups. D) family therapy.
answer

A
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120.According to the text, couples therapy is MOST helpful for couples who: A) are on the verge of a divorce or separation. B) have two or more children. C) are committed to saving their relationship. D) have been together less than 10 years.
answer

C
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121.The textbook states that the therapist’s empathy and listening skills are critically important to the success of group therapy. _____ might say that a therapeutic alliance is equally crucial in individual and group therapy. A) Carl Rogers B) Alfred Adler C) Aaron Beck D) Albert Ellis
answer

A
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122.Medication for psychological disorders is generally prescribed by _____, who have _____ degrees. A) psychiatrists; MD B) psychiatrists; PhD C) psychologists; MD D) psychologists; PhD
answer

A
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123.Which is NOT a type of medication used to treat psychological disorders? A) mood-stabilizers B) antipsychotics C) antidepressants D) anticompulsives
answer

D
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124.About _____ of the population experiences major depression in any given year. A) 1% B) 4% C) 7% D) 11%
answer

C
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125.Which is NOT one of the three classes of antidepressants? A) monoamine oxidase inhibitors B) tricyclics C) selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors D) beta blockers
answer

D
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126.Which class of antidepressant is correctly matched with a sample drug? A) monoamine oxidase inhibitors – Prozac B) tricyclics – Elavil C) selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors – Nardil D) Each of these classes of antidepressants is correctly matched.
answer

B
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127.Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) were developed in the: A) 1940s. B) 1950s. C) 1960s. D) 1970s.
answer

B
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128.The neurotransmitters affected by monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) do NOT include: A) norepinephrine. B) dopamine. C) endorphins. D) serotonin.
answer

C
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129.Which statement BEST expresses trends in the use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) to treat depression? A) MAOIs have increased in popularity in recent decades. B) The use of MAOIs has decreased somewhat in the past few years. C) The use of MAOIs has remained constant since their introduction. D) MAOIs have largely fallen out of favor.
answer

D
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130.Tricyclic antidepressants affect the action of the neurotransmitters: A) serotonin and norepinephrine. B) serotonin and dopamine. C) dopamine and norepinephrine. D) dopamine and acetylcholine.
answer

A
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131.Which is NOT a potential side effect of tricyclic antidepressants? A) weight loss B) risk of heart attack C) sexual dysfunction D) confusion
answer

A
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132.Selective serotonin uptake inhibitors were introduced in the: A) 1950s. B) 1960s. C) 1970s. D) 1980s.
answer

D
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133.Kelley is currently being treated for severe major depression. She is MOST likely to be prescribed a(n): A) monoamine oxidase inhibitor. B) tricyclic. C) selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. D) atypical antipsychotic.
answer

C
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134._____ are the most popular antidepressants today. A) Anticonvulsives B) Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors C) Tricyclics D) Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
answer

B
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135.Today Benson started taking Prozac for severe major depression. He can expect to see improvement: A) immediately. B) in about 2 weeks. C) in about 1 month. D) in about 2 months.
answer

C
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136.Weight gain, hot flashes and chills, insomnia, and nausea are potential side effects of the use of _____ to treat depression. A) antipsychotics B) selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors C) tricyclics D) monoamine oxidase inhibitors
answer

B
question

137.Mood stabilizers are used to treat _____ disorder. A) bipolar B) major depressive C) generalized anxiety D) antisocial personality
answer

A
question

138.Mrs. Williams experiences periods of intense mania alternating with bouts of major depression. She will be BEST treated using: A) monoamine oxidase inhibitors. B) mood stabilizers. C) atypical antipsychotics. D) tricyclics.
answer

B
question

139.People with bipolar disorder are ____ times as likely to take their own lives as are members of the general population. A) 2 B) 5 C) 10 D) 20
answer

D
question

140.Bipolar disorder is treated with _____ or _____. A) antipsychotics; monoamine oxidase inhibitors B) atypical antipsychotics; mood stabilizers C) anticonvulsants; tricyclics D) anticonvulsants; mood stabilizers
answer

D
question

141.Traditional and atypical antipsychotics are used to treat: A) schizophrenia. B) bipolar disorder. C) anxiety disorders. D) major depression.
answer

A
question

142.Daniel has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. Daniel’s psychiatrist might prescribe _____ to control his hallucinations and delusions. A) mood-stabilizers or anticonvulsants B) traditional or atypical antipsychotics C) benzodiazepines D) tricyclics or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
answer

B
question

143.Traditional antipsychotics first appeared in the: A) 1940s. B) 1950s. C) 1960s. D) 1970s.
answer

B
question

144.Which drug is correctly classified? A) Haldol – atypical antipsychotic B) Risperdal – traditional antipsychotic C) Neither Haldol nor Risperdal is correctly classified. D) Both Haldol and Risperdal are correctly classified.
answer

C
question

145.To control schizophrenic symptoms, Nicola has been taking an antipsychotic medication for approximately 18 months. Recently, she has developed such symptoms as shaking, restlessness, and facial tics. These side effects are sometimes seen with _____ antipsychotics, such as _____. A) atypical; Haldol B) atypical; Risperdal C) traditional; Haldol D) traditional; Risperdal
answer

C
question

146.How do traditional antipsychotics differ from atypical antipsychotics? A) Traditional antipsychotics are dopamine antagonists whereas atypical antipsychotics are not. B) Traditional antipsychotics do not reduce hallucinations and delusions, but atypical antipsychotics do. C) Traditional antipsychotics affect only dopamine, while atypical antipsychotics affect dopamine and other neurotransmitters. D) Atypical antipsychotics are associated with tardive dyskinesia, whereas traditional antipsychotics are not.
answer

C
question

147.Atypical antipsychotics reduce schizophrenic symptoms in approximately _____ of patients. A) 25 to 45% B) 45 to 60% C) 60 to 85% D) 85 to 95%
answer

C
question

148.Social phobia and panic disorder are treated using: A) benzodiazepines. B) atypical antipsychotics. C) mood-stabilizers. D) tricyclics.
answer

A
question

149.Erin has been diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder. Her psychiatrist is MOST likely to prescribe a: A) selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. B) benzodiazepine. C) anticonvulsant. D) monoamine antioxidase inhibitor.
answer

B
question

150.One example of a benzodiazepine is: A) Risperdal. B) Valium. C) lithium. D) Prozac.
answer

B
question

151._____ was the first psychotropic prescription drug to widely abused. A) Zoloft B) Prozac C) Valium D) Haldol
answer

C
question

152.During the 1970s, _____ was nicknamed “Executive Excedrin” due to its abuse among white-collar businesspeople. A) Prozac B) Risperdal C) Ativan D) Valium
answer

D
question

153.Dopamine is to GABA as ______ is to _____. A) Xanax; Prozac B) traditional antipsychotics; benzodiazepines C) Valium; Xanax D) benzodiazepines; atypical antipsychotics
answer

B
question

154.Which drug is correctly matched with its category? A) Zoloft – antipsychotic B) Xanax – antidepressant C) lithium – mood-stabilizer D) Risperdal – antianxiety
answer

C
question

155.Which drug is correctly matched with the disorder for which it might be prescribed? A) Prozac – bipolar disorder B) Ativan – generalized anxiety disorder C) lithium – schizophrenia D) Haldol – major depressive disorder
answer

B
question

156.Which psychological disorder is correctly matched with its medication? A) panic disorder – antidepressants B) major depressive disorder – mood-stabilizers C) bipolar disorder – antianxiety drugs D) schizophrenia – antipsychotics
answer

D
question

157.Which client is correctly matched with a drug she might be prescribed? A) Allanah, who has social phobia – Xanax B) Belinda, diagnosed with major depression – Risperdal C) Candy, who suffers from bipolar disorder – Valium D) Donna, disagnosed with schizophrenia – Zoloft
answer

A
question

158.The targeted destruction of a portion of the anterior cingulate cortex is used to treat severe _____ disorder. A) major depressive B) panic C) bipolar D) generalized anxiety
answer

A
question

159.The use of modern-day electroconvulsive therapy in severe cases of major depressive disorder is associated with a remission rate of approximately _____. A) 65% B) 75% C) 85% D) 95%
answer

C
question

160.Implanting an electrode that supplies a weak electrical current to specific brain areas is called _____. It is useful in the treatment of _____. A) electroconvulsive therapy; depression B) electroconvulsive therapy; schizophrenia C) deep brain stimulation; depression D) deep brain stimulation; schizophrenia
answer

C
question

161.Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation involves: A) using electrodes implanted in the brain to deliver a weak current. B) delivering an electrical current to the brain through coils outside the head. C) the targeted destruction of specific brain areas. D) using electricity to induce seizures in the brain.
answer

B
question

162.Vino suffers from schizophrenia. So far, his hallucinations have not responded to antipsychotic medication. His doctor might recommend: A) an anterior cigulotomy. B) electroconvulsive therapy. C) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. D) deep brain stimulation.
answer

C
question

163.Ms. Milner suffers from severe major depression. A physician implants an electrode to supply a weak electrical current to a specific portion of her brain. Ms. Milner is undergoing: A) an anterior cigulotomy. B) electroconvulsive therapy. C) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. D) deep brain stimulation.
answer

D
question

164.Electroconvulsive therapy was most prevalent in the _____ century. A) 19th B) early 20th C) mid-20th D) late 20th
answer

C
question

165.Over the years, the proportion of hospital patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy has: A) declined dramatically. B) declined slightly. C) remained steady. D) increased.
answer

A
question

166.Prefrontal lobotomies declined in popularity during the _____ with the introduction of _____. A) 1940s; antipsychotics B) 1940s; mood stabilizers C) 1950s; antipsychotics D) 1950s; mood stabilizers
answer

C
question

167.In recent years, neurosurgery has been used to treat a few people suffering from severe, intractable _____ disorder. A) antisocial personality B) obsessive-compulsive C) bipolar D) generalized anxiety
answer

B
question

168.Ethnic minorities comprise nearly _____ of the American population. A) 15% B) 25% C) 35% D) 45%
answer

C
question

169.In mainstream American culture, a silence is awkward if it lasts _____ seconds. In Lakota culture, a silence may last up to _____ seconds without being awkward. A) 2; 20 B) 5; 30 C) 10; 20 D) 12; 30
answer

B
question

170.The text cites a Los Angeles county study in which Mexican and Asian-Americans were more likely to stick with and benefit from therapy when matched with a therapist of the same ethnicity and native language. The length of time the clients persisted in therapy was a(n) _____ variable in this study. A) control B) dependent C) experimental D) independent
answer

B
question

171.Collectivist cultures include _____ cultures. A) American Indian B) Latin American C) European American D) American Indian and Latin American
answer

D
question

172.About _____ of all psychotherapy clients show clinically significantly improvement after 21 sessions. A) 1/5 B) 1/4 C) 1/3 D) 1/2
answer

D
question

173.After 42 psychotherapy sessions, _____ of clients show clinically significant improvement. A) 51% B) 65% C) 75% D) 85%
answer

C
question

174.Michelle is considering psychotherapy. She can expect to pay at least $_____ for one 60- minute session. A) 50 B) 80 C) 120 D) 150
answer

B
question

175.In _____, legislation began requiring group insurance plans to provide mental health coverage. A) 1998 B) 2001 C) 2007 D) 2010
answer

D
question

176.Clinical psychologists have earned: A) PhDs. B) EdDs. C) PsyDs. D) either PhDs or PsyDs.
answer

D
question

177.Ms. Murdoch is undergoing therapy for generalized anxiety disorder through a combination of online videoconferences and chat sessions with her therapist. Ms. Murdoch is receiving: A) e-therapy. B) virtual therapy. C) cybertherapy. D) online therapy.
answer

A
question

178.A category of therapy that uses the Internet to provide support and treatment is known as: A) virtual therapy. B) e-therapy. C) cybertherapy. D) online therapy.
answer

B
question

179.The lack of nonverbal cues and the difficulty of establishing a therapeutic relationship are two shortcomings of _____, which uses the Internet to provide support and treatment. A) virtual therapy B) cybertherapy C) e-therapy D) online therapy
answer

C
question

180.Dr. Perkins receives an email request from one of his clients, asking if she can join his LinkedIn network. According to the textbook, Dr. Perkins’s response should be a: A) definite “no.” B) “maybe.” C) cautious “yes.” D) definite “yes.”
answer

A
question

181.The first asylums were established in the 16th century. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

182.Philippe Pinel is to Dorothea Dix as mental hygiene is to moral treatment. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

183.The deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill began in the 1930s. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

184.The deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill has been a mixed blessing. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

185.At least 75% of the prison inmates in the United States suffer from a psychological disorder. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

186.Stays in psychiatric hospitals are often too short to be beneficial. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

187.Insight therapy is also known as talk therapy. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

188.When therapists work with families or groups, they generally use some type of insight therapy. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

189.An eclectic approach to therapy integrates multiple theoretical perspectives. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

190.Outcome research is used to evaluate the effectiveness of therapies. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

191.Psychoanalysis is the oldest form of psychotherapy. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

192.Psychoanalysts believe that dreams offer clues to the unconscious. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

193.Adrienne is describing a dream to her therapist. The events she recounts constitute the latent content of her dream. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

194.Bryan is angry with his therapist; Bryan’s anger reflects his feelings toward his father when he was a young boy in the throes of the Oedipal conflict. This example illustrates transference. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

195.Psychoanalysts generally discourage transference. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

196.Many of today’s psychotherapists still identify as psychoanalysts. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

197.Psychodynamic therapists reject most of Freud’s ideas. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

198.Psychodynamic therapy has proven effective in the treatment of many different psychological disorders. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

199.Humanistic therapy is a type of insight therapy. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

200.Dr. Yates believes that people are motivated to grow in positive directions, and that problems in the here-and-now are more important than past experiences. Dr. Yates’ beliefs are consistent with humanistic therapy. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

201.Person-centered therapy is one type of psychodynamic therapy. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

202.Person-centered therapy was developed by Carl Rogers. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

203.Carl Rogers avoided using the term “patient.” A) True B) False
answer

A
question

204.Empathy and genuineness are important parts of the therapeutic alliance. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

205.In contrast to psychodynamic therapy, humanistic therapy does not require a high level of self-awareness or well-developed verbal ability. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

206.Exposure treatments are based on extinction, the process by which a conditioned response eventually disappears when the conditioned stimulus is presented in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

207.A token economy is one variant of aversion therapy. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

208.Virtual reality exposure therapy is usually combined with other types of therapy. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

210.Aversion therapy is used mainly to treat phobias. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

209.Aversion therapy is a combination of exposure and an anxiety hierarchy. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

211.Cathy visits a behavior therapist for help with her alcohol abuse. To treat Cathy’s problem, the therapist might use systematic desensitization. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

212.Systematic desensitization and aversion therapy are based on operant conditioning. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

220.Beck’s cognitive therapy uses the ABC model to understand clients’ problems. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

213.Token economies represent one type of behavior modification. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

218.Helping clients recognize and challenge their cognitive distortions is at the core of person-centered therapy. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

214.Behavior therapy is generally briefer than other types of therapy. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

215.Behavior therapy has proven successful in treating schizophrenia. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

216.Aaron Beck was originally trained as a humanistic therapist. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

219.Client homework is an important part of cognitive therapy. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

217.Aaron Beck believed that automatic thought patterns are at the root of psychological disorders. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

221.Beck’s and Ellis’s approaches to treatment are called cognitive behavioral therapy. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

222.Cognitive therapies are brief. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

230.Prozac is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

223.For most disorders, rational-emotive behavior therapy is superior to cognitive therapy. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

229.Overall, group therapy is less effective than individual therapy. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

224.Self-help groups are led by paraprofessionals rather than by trained mental health professionals. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

225.Group therapy and family therapy were both developed in the 1970s. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

228.Couples therapy has little effect on marital satisfaction. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

226.The course of family therapy is usually brief. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

227.Couples therapy often focuses on conflict resolution and communication problems. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

231.Major depression is usually treated with anticonvulsants and mood-stabilizers. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

232.Monoamine oxidase inhibitors were the first antidepressants. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

233.The medications Paxil, Prozac, and Zoloft were first used in the 1980s. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

234.Today’s selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have few, if any, side effects. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

235.Lithium is a naturally occurring element used as a mood stabilizer. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

236.Tyrone experiences periods of extreme mania alternating with deep depression. He will probably be treated with an antipsychotic medication. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

240.Valium and Xanax are benzodiazepines. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

237.Anticonvulsant is to antipsychotic as bipolar disorder is to schizophrenia. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

238.Both traditional and atypical antipsychotics reduce serotonin levels in the brain. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

239.Traditional antipsychotics were largely responsible for the first waves of deinstitutionalization in the 1950s. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

241.GABA is to serotonin as antidepressant is to antianxiety drug. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

242.Antianxiety medications can be very addictive. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

243.Psychotropic drugs are just as effective when they are used alone as when they are used in combination with psychotherapy. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

244.Electroconvulsive therapy is no longer used for major depression. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

245.Prefrontal lobotomies were performed on mental patients during the 1930s through the 1950s. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

250.Therapists are encouraged to “friend” or “follow” their clients using social media. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

249.E-therapy can improve access to treatment in isolated, rural areas. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

248.American Indian cultures are usually individualistic. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

246.Modern, targeted psychosurgery has been used to treat severe cases of obsessive- compulsive disorder. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

247.For therapy to be effective, the therapist must share the client’s cultural background. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

251.After 21 psychotherapy sessions, about 80% of clients show significant improvement. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

252.Twenty-one sessions of psychotherapy are as effective as 42. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

253.Most group insurance plans no longer cover mental health treatment. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

254.A single hour of psychotherapy generally costs at least $200. A) True B) False
answer

B
question

255.Clinical psychologists have ether PhD or PsyD degrees. A) True B) False
answer

A
question

256.Briefly describe the important developments in the history of psychological treatment associated with each of these time periods: a) the Stone Age; b) the Renaissance; c) the French Revolution; d) Early America; and e) the 20th century.
answer

Time Period the Stone Age Development(s) The mentally ill were thought to be possessed and were treated through trephination. the Renaissancebegan establishing Religious groups asylums for the treatment of the mentally ill. the French Revolution Early America the 20th century Philippe Pinel advocated the “moral treatment” of the mentally ill in place of the harsh, abusive treatment then in place. Dorothea Dix championed the “mental hygiene” movement, establishing and reforming many state mental hospitals. Psychologists began to view normal and abnormal behavior as a continuum. The first edition of the DSM was published in 1952. The development of medications ushered in an era of deinstitutionalization in the 1950s and 1960s.
question

257.Distinguish between biomedical and psychological therapies. Identify and define one example of a biomedical therapy. Distinguish between insight and behavioral therapies. Identify and describe one example of an insight therapy.
answer

Biomedical therapies target the biological causes of disorders. Psychological therapies focus on the psychological factors involved in disorders, such as learning mechanisms and cognition. One example of a biomedical therapy is electroconvulsive therapy, which induces seizures in the brain. Psychological therapies may be divided into insight and behavioral therapies. Insight therapies aim to increase awareness of self and the environment, whereas behavior therapies focus on changing behavior. Cognitive therapy is one example of an insight therapy. It focuses on changing maladaptive thought patterns.
question

258.Discuss how psychoanalytic therapy uses the following tools: (a) free association; (b) dream interpretation; (c) resistance; and (d) transference.
answer

Freeassociation.Whentherapistsusefreeassociation,theyinstructthepatientto say aloud whatever comes to mind, regardless of how irrelevant or nonsensical it seems. The seemingly random flow of thought might yield clues as to the content of the patient’s unconscious thoughts. Dream interpretation. The patient reports his or her dreams. The surface content of the dream is the manifest content, a disguised or symbolic representation of the true, underlying meaning, or latent content, which presumably reflects the contents of the unconscious mind. The therapist attempts to decode the manifest content in order to understand the dream’s latent content, and thereby comprehend the patient’s unconscious mind. Resistance. Resistance is the patient’s inability or unwillingness to discuss or reveal particular memories, thoughts, or motivations. Resistance may be revealed in many ways: the patient may change the subject abruptly, appear to forget what he or she was saying, and so on. The therapist attempts to identify instances of resistance and use these as a clue to identify particularly painful or disturbing elements in the patient’s unconscious. Transference. Transference is when the patient transfers to the analyst feelings of anger or love that the patient originally directed toward his or her parents or other authority figures. Therapists generally encourage transference because it illuminates the unconscious.
question

259.Describe the goal of person-centered therapy and identify several ways that therapists try to achieve this goal.
answer

Person-centered therapy is based on the view that each person has a natural tendency toward growth and self-actualization. Yet factors such as expectations from family and society stifle the process or block this tendency. Thus the goal of person-centered therapy is to help clients move toward self-actualization, which is a state of self-fulfillment in which people realize their highest potentials. Person- centered therapists act as guides or facilitators. They develop 1) a therapeutic alliance in order to 2) provide a warm and supportive environment through nondirective counseling, in which they 3) practice active listening, 4) reflect and clarify the client’s statements, and 5) offer unconditional positive regard by expressing warmth and acceptance no matter what the client says or does.
question

260.What is a “therapeutic alliance”? Identify three of the components of the therapeutic alliance.
answer

The therapeutic alliance is a warm and accepting relationship between the client and the therapist. It is based on mutual respect and caring and it provides a safe environment for self-exploration. Three of these four components of the therapeutic alliance should be described: Component empathy unconditional positive regard genuineness active listening Description the ability to feel what the client is experiencing and to see the world through the client’s eyes the total acceptance of a client, no matter what he or she reveals being authentic and not hiding behind a polite, professional mask; this allows the client to open up reflecting and echoing the main points of the client’s speech; picking up on the emotions behind the client’s words
question

261.Describe how a behavior therapist might use systematic desensitization and exposure therapy to treat a specific phobia or source of anxiety. Offer a concrete example for each process.
answer

In systematic desensitization, gradual exposure to an anxiety-producing stimulus is paired with relaxation to extinguish the response of anxiety. First, the patient is trained in relaxation techniques to learn how to relax his or her body fully. Next, the patient creates a hierarchy of fears—a list of stimuli associated with the patient’s phobia, arranged in order of increasing severity. For example, a patient with a needle phobia might place seeing a discarded needle on the sidewalk near the bottom of the hierarchy; having a blood test would be at the top of the hierarchy. Then the patient is asked to imagine each scene in the hierarchy while in a fully relaxed state. Once the patient can imagine a scene in the hierarchy and remain relaxed, the patient moves to the next level in the hierarchy. At the end of treatment, the patient is asked to confront the object of the phobia in real life; the hope is that the patient will not become anxious but will remain relaxed. For example, the patient may be asked to take a blood test or receive an injection. In exposure therapy, the patient is confronted, either gradually or suddenly, with the object of a phobia. Relaxation training is omitted; the exposure itself allows the phobic response to dissipate or extinguish. Most often, exposure is gradual. A needle phobic might be exposed to a picture of a needle, then to a picture of an injection, then to the sight of an individual undergoing a blood test or an injection. Finally, the patient herself would undergo a blood test or an injection.
question

262.Briefly describe cognitive behavioral therapy. Distinguish between Beck’s cognitive therapy and Ellis’ rational-emotive behavioral therapy.
answer

Cognitive behavioral therapy helps clients identify and challenge their maladaptive thinking. It tends to be brief, action-oriented, and homework intensive. Cognitive therapy may be used to successfully treat a range of disorders, such as social phobia and generalized anxiety disorder. Aaron Beck’s cognitive therapy is based on the idea that automatic cognitive distortions are at the root of many psychological disorders. One example of such a distortion is overgeneralization, the belief that because something has happened once, it will always happen. Cognitive therapy helps people identify, dismantle, and replace their negative thought patterns. Albert Ellis’s rational-emotive behavior therapy is based on the notion that people have unrealistic, irrational beliefs that are often perfectionistic in nature. Rational-emotive behavior therapy helps people identify these unrealistic beliefs, the events that activate them, and their emotional consequences. It teaches people to dispute these beliefs and replace them with effective new philosophies.
question

263.Briefly describe group therapy, self-help groups, family therapy, and couples therapy. Identify the objectives of each of these types of therapy, and discuss their effectiveness.
answer

Therapy Description Group — led by one or therapy two therapists trained in any approach — usually consists of 3-10 clients — used for many different problems, disorders, and issues. — often just as effective as individual therapy Self-help– group settings groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous and Weight Watchers — sessions often led by trained paraprofessionals — commonly called “support groups” Family — focuses on the therapy family as an integrated system — focuses on relationship problems — tends to be brief Couples — focuses on therapy communication problems and conflict resolution — has positive results for many couples
question

264.Select two of these disorders: major depressive disorder; generalized anxiety disorder; bipolar disorder; and schizophrenia disorders. Suggest how the disorders you select may be treated with medication and state the effect(s) of the drugs on particular neurotransmitters and the side effects associated with those drugs.
answer

Major depression Type of drugs: Monoamine oxidase inhibitors; tricyclics; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors Specific examples: Prozac, Zoloft Effect of drugs: Monoamine oxidase inhibitors—norephinephrine/serotonin/dopamine agonists; Tricyclics—norephinephrine/serotonin agonists; SSRIs—serotonin agonists. Side effects: Monoamine oxidase inhibitors and tricyclics had many side effects. Today’s selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may produce weight gain, insomnia, hot flashes and chills, and sexual dysfunction. Generalized anxiety disorder Type of drugs: benzodiazepenes Specific examples: Xanax, Valium, Ativan Effect of drugs: GABA agonist Side effects: dependency; dangerous when combined with alcohol Bipolar disorder Type of drugs: mood stabilizers; anticonvulsants Specific examples: Lithium Effect of drugs: unknown Side effects: hand tremors; thirst; nausea; death if dose too high Schizophrenia Type of drugs: antipsychotics, atypical antipsychotics Specific examples: Haldol; Risperdol Effect of drugs: dopamine antagonists; atypical antipsychotics influence both serotonin and dopamine Side effects: traditional antipsychotics: tardive dyskinesia; atypical antipsychotics: weight gain, risk for diabetes, sexual dysfunction; heart disease
question

265.Describe how electroconvulsive therapy and psychosurgery are used in contemporary psychology.
answer

While electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is used more rarely now than in the past, it is still used in extreme cases of depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, especially when medication has not worked. Today’s ECT is humane and targeted. Clients take painkillers and muscle relaxants before the procedure, and are anesthetized while it is being performed. The electric current is sufficiently weak to limit seizures to the brain, and patients receive only three treatments a week for about a month. Neurosurgery is only used as a last resort today. When it is used, it is much more specific and targeted than the former days when crude lobotomies were performed. An example is the anterior cingulotomy, used in severe cases of major depression. Targeted neurosurgery has also been used to treat severe cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

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