velocity is the direct result of a ges’s temperature.
Example: chlorine gas ,Cl₂, molecules are more than 1/3 the mass of gold atoms (71g/mol vs 197g/mol). But a piece of gold that takes up the same space as a sample of chlorine gas will have around 6500 times more mass.This is due to the large amount of empty space around each Cl₂ molecule.
1 Pascal = 1N/m²
1 Atmosphere = 101.3 kPa = 760 mm of Hg = 760 torrs = 14.7 pounds per square inch (P.S.I.) = 1.01 bars
Metallic Bonding (metallic cations + delocalized electrons): similar to ionic but only involves a single type of metal atom.
Covalent Bonding (nonmetals + nonmetals): weakest of intramolecular forces
(2) Position of individual particles are NOT fixed (limited motion) but have much less freedom of movement than a gas.
(3) At S.T.P. (standard temperature of 25°C and pressure of 1 atm.) liquids are much denser than gases due to stronger intermolecular forces.
(4) Both gases and liquids are FLUIDS, because they can flow and will diffuse (spread from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration).But liquids are much LESS fluid and diffuse much less freely than gases.
(2) Surface Tension
(3) Adhesion & Cohesion
a. the strength of the intermolecular force (honey and glycerol have greater intermolecular forces than water, therefore they are more VISCOUS than water).
b. a decrease in temperature (cold maple syrup flows less easily that warm maple syrup because the lower temperature makes a liquid more VISCOUS).
c. increased size of a molecule.
d. an increase in the complexity of a molecule’s shape.
Adhesion – the force of attraction between molecules that are different.
1. water is drawn from the roots of a tree to its leaves through capillary action.
2.Paper towels absorb liquid through capillary action, allowing a fluid to be transferred from a surface to the towel.
3. The small pores of a sponge act as small capillaries, causing it to absorb a comparatively large amount of fluid.
4. Some modern sport and exercise fabrics use capillary action to “wick” sweat away from the skin.
5. Capillary action allows trees to move water from its roots to its leaves.
6. Capillary action allows animals to pump blood throughout its body.
2. Molecular – molecules; fairly soft w/ low to moderately high m.p., poor conductivity (I₂, H₂O, NH₃, CO₂)
3. Covalent Network – atoms connected by covalent bonds; very hard w/ very high m.p., poor conductivity (diamond and quartz)
4. Ionic – ions; hard, brittle, high m.p., poor conductivity (NaCl, KBr, CaCO₃)
5. Metallic – atoms surrounded by mobile valence electrons; soft to hard, low to very high m.p., malleable and ductile, excellent conductivity (all metallic elements)