Chapter 12 Sociology

formal schooling
education that is provided and regulated by society
open classroom
a nonbuereaucratic approach to education based on democracy, flexibility, and noncompetitiveness
cooperative learning
instructional method that relies on cooperation among students
integrative curriculum
an approach to education based on student-teacher collaboration
voucher system
system in which public schools funds may be used to support public, private or religious schools
charter schools
public schools that are operated like private school teachers and administrators
magnet schools
public schools that focus on particular disciplines or areas, such as fine arts or science
for-profit schools
schools run by private companies on government funds
manifest function
an action that produces an intended and recognized result
latent function
an action that produces an unintended and unrecognized result
tracking
placement of students in programs according to academic ability levels
meritocracy
a society in which social status is based on ability and achievements
competition
system in which rewards are based on relative performance
educational equality
educational equality in which schooling produces the same results for lower-class and minority as it does for other children
cognitive ability
capacity for thinking abstractly
cultural bias
the unfair measurement of the cognitive abilities of people in some social categories
school desegregation
the achievements of a racial balance in the classroom
multicultural education
an educational curriculum that emphasizes differences among gender, ethnic, and racial categories
compensatory education
specific curricular programs designed to overcome a deficiency
hidden curriculum
the nonacademic agenda that teaches discipline, order cooperativeness, and conformity
self-fulfilling prophecy
a prediction that results in behavior that makes the prediction come true

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