Chapter 12, 13 and 14

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What were the conditions of Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire?
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Germanic invaders overran Europe caused 1) disruption of trade 2) Cities abandoned 3)Population shifted to rural areas to grow food 4) Decline of learning 5) Loss of a common language
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What did Charlemagne Accomplish and how did it effect Europe?
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1) Reunited Europe 2) Rescued the Pope and Pope crowned him Emporer 3) Limited authority and power of Nobles and landholders 4) encouraged learning
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Vikings and longships
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From Scandinavia carried out raids & looting with terrifying speed. Longships were lightweight, shallow-could be carried and move in 3 feet of water allowing access to rivers.
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What are the 3 orders of Feudalism?
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Those who fought (nobles and knights), those who prayed (men and women of the church) and those who worked (peasants). Place in society was determined by birth.
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What is the Feudalism social structure?
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1. The king gave land to the powerful nobles in exchange for loyalty 2. The Powerful Nobles gave land and protection to the lesser nobles (Knights) in exchange for loyalty and military service 3) Lesser Nobles (Knights) gave protection in exchange for labor
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Why did the Feudalism structure develop as it did?
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After Rome fell, no strong central government the Feudal system developed to social/political order and stability as well as system of protection. A society based on mutual obligation.
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Who were the knights and what was their code of Chivalry?
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The knights job was to protect the peasants from attackers. Chivalry was a display o courage and valor in combat, respect toward women and devotion to a feudal lord and heavenly lord.
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What is a Vassal?
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Person receiving the Fief Everyone is a Vassal to the King.
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Who is a lord fief?
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A landowner granting land.
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What is the oath of Fealty?
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A ceremony where vassal swearing to be faithful to the fief (typically a Lord) and the lord promising protection, etc.
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How or why did Feudalism decline?
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the feudalism declined because there was more merchants and they did not know were to put merchants on the chart
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What is Manorialism?
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Political, economic, and social system by which the peasants of medieval Europe were tied to their land and their lord through serfdom.
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What is the structure of the manor?
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Lords estate-a basic economic arrangement. Lord provided houses and farmland and protection. In return, the serfs tended the lord’s lands. Self contained and self suffient–even had a church. Very little reason to leave.
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Who were serfs?
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Could not lawfully leave the manor where they were born. Labor produced was owned by the landowner.
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How were serfs different from slaves?
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Not owned by the landowner–could not be traded or bought
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What were serfs living conditions?
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lived crowded villages in 2 room cottages. Weddings had to be approved by the Lord and were taxed. Grain milled in the lords mill was taxed. Mostly ate veggies, soup and bread. Worked day and night. Paid tithe (taxes) to the church.
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What are the elements of Cathedrals?
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Cathedrals included stained glass windows, sculpture, wood carvings. Glothic style included Ribbed valuts, flying buttresses, pointed arches and tall spires.
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Why were Cathedrals built?
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Inspire worshiper with the magnificence of God. Reaching to the heavens.
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Describe the Medieval Church and age of faith?
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Religion was the most important thing in people’s lives in the middle ages. The church had all the power, even more than kings. All people lived by the church and the idea that life on earth is hell by working your way to get to heaven after you pass. The church was able to excommunicate people if they were to do anything wrong or to disobey the church, they could even excommunicate kings.
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What is the difference between Monks and Mendicant friars?
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Monks stay in the monastery while friars stay in the community. Friars rely on donations.
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How did the church benefits and how did it hold power over medieval society?
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People were taught that the only way they could get to Heaven was if the Roman Catholic Church let them. So, people would give money to the church either through taxes, food, working the land, etc.
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What is Gregorian Reform?
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Reforms initiated by Pope Gregory VI reconfirmed that priest must not marry and celibate. Also, that the Pope is highest person and higher than kings.
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What happened during the crusades and why?
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Muslims took control of the \”holy land\” and Christians fought to give control back to Jews and themselves. Kings and the church saw this as an opportunity to send knights , many who did not have land to inherit into battle. Money was made financing the battle.
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What were the effects of the crusades?
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Church became more powerful and rich, commerce thrived because money was made making supplies to support the crusaders. Start of the decline of Feudalism because many lord mortgaged their land to pay for the crussades and never returned and heirs lost the land. Many lives lost. Expanded learning because people traveled and met other people and saw other lands.
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What is the Magna Carta and its significance?
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The Magna Carta is one of the most important documents in history. It guaranteed the people certain rights, and bound the king to certain laws. At the time, England was mainly operated on a feudal system of land ownership. However, feudal lords and noblemen became angered when King John lost territory to the French. He also increased taxes and oppressed many of his people, arresting them without trials. In 1215 A.D., these fed-up citizens drafted the Magna Carta (Latin for Great Charter) and forced King John to sign it upon threat of civil war. While it initially was meant to protect the interests of the noblemen, in time, the rights established by the Magna Carta were also extended to commoners.
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What happened during the Little Ice Age and the great Famine?
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???
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What was the 100 year war?
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it was a long battle between the french and the british
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What is a longbow?
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A powerful weapon; 6 feet long; essential to the victory of the English in the Hundred Years’ War; longbow could shoot six arrows in the time a French archer could shoot one; pierced all but the heaviest armor.
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Who is Joan of Arc?
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Joan of Arc is the modern-day name of a teenage woman who, driven by voices she heard, dressed as a knight fought to drive the English out of France and crown Charles VII as the French king. She was sold to the English and burned at the stake.
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What caused the Black Death?
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It came from fleas that were on rats. The rats came from asia and stayed on the boat. Because most people did not bath, flees and lice were on people. The flees would jump from person to person.
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What were the characteristics and effects of the black death?
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Purplish/black spots on skin-high fever, swellon lymph nodes. Most that had it died. Killed 1/3 of the population. Church suffered loss of prestige when prayers failed to stop the deaths, serfs left manors looking for better wages, trade declined-prices fell.
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How did the Tang Dynasty Expand?
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Tang reconquered northern western lands including korea. Strengthen central government, expanded roads and canals, promoted foreign trade and improved agriculuture.
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What was the Civil service examination system of the Tang Dynasty?
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Had exam to place people in power-government jobs..Open to all men and women, but only wealthy could afford to study for it. Still people with political connects would achieve high positions without taking the exam. Despite flaws, created a educated government and moderately wealthy families could has in government.
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What was the Philosophy and military of the Song Dynasty?
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Tried to buy peace with the north, but ultimately failed. Never strong military. Moved capital to Hangzhou, costal city south of Chang Jiang. Saw rapid economic growth from rich trade with Europe and western asia.
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What were technological innovations of the Song Dynasty?
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Printer with movable type,gunpower–bombs, grenades, etc. porcelain, mechanical clock, paper money, magnetic compass for sailing. Farming-better rice seedlings, used sailing for trade vs. dangerous silk road routes.
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Song Dynasty–Urban life and status of women
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Aristocratic families faded–new upper class made up of scholar-officals and their families called Gentry. Obtain status through education and civil service vs. landownership. Below gentry was middle class (shopekeepers, artist) and below that were laborers. Upper class woman had feet bounded, called Lily-foot to show that they could have a impractical wife. Women became worked side-by-side in the fields and were less subserviant.
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Song Dynasty–Characteristics and purposes of painting
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Daoist influence. Emphasized natural landscapes and a single branch or flower.
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What caused the decline of the Song Dynasty?
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The Northern Song Dynasty fell in 1127 AD, when the Jurchen people invaded and conquered Northern China. They sacked the Northern Song capital of Kaifeng, and captured the Northern Song Emperor, Qinzong. The Song Royal Family then fled south to the city of Hangzhou, and established a new kingdom in Southern China, named the Southern Song. The Jurchen founded the Jin Dynasty which ruled Northern China. The Southern Song Dynasty fell in 1279 AD when the Mongols under Khublai Khan successfully invaded and conquered China. The Mongols then established the Yuan Dynasty.
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What is the culture of the steppe in the Mongols?
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Served as a land route between east and west, and home to nomads who frequently swept down on their neighbors to plunder, loot, and conquer. Tall grassy areas.
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What were the Mongols Genghis Khan/Conquests and Strategies?
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Grouped warriors into armies of 10,000. Then organized into Brigades, 100-man companies, and then 10 man squads. Put battle proven, loyal men in command of troops. Used tricks to confuse enemies-had small calvary unit would attack and flee. Enemy would chase them and then larger company would attack and slaughter enemy. Used cruelty as a weapon-terrifying enemy to surrender. If a city refused to open a gate for him, he might kill the entire population when he gain access to the city. Wore armor,
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What was the impact of the Mongols?
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Goals was to conquer all of China. Killed a lot of people. Tended to adopted the culture of people they ruled vs. imposing their own. Imposed peace-Pax Mongolica or Mongol Peace. Guaranteed safe passage for travelers so trade with Europe thrived.
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Yuan Dynasty-Who was Kublai Khan?
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Grandson of Genghis Khan-goal to conquer all of China. United China for first time, tolerated Chineese culture and made few changes to chinese government and liked living in the luxury of a chinese Emporer vs. steepe. Build Great Wall. Moved
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Yuan Dynasty–What is Pax Mongolica/Trade?
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Imposed peace-Pax Mongolia or Mongol Peace. Guaranteed safe passage for travelers so trade with Europe thrived. Silk, gunpower, printing all exported to Europe.
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Middle Age Economics:
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1. Better farming methods increased food production 2. Trade expanded 3. guilds formed for both merchants and artisans
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Kublai Khan is considered one of the great emperors of China because he (A) united China for the first time in 300 years (B) preserved Chinese government (C) established his capital at Beijing (D) conquered Japan
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united China for the first time in 300 years
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. One reason the Chinese resented the Mongol rulers was (A) the Mongols dismantled the Chinese system of government (B) the Great Khanate outlawed Chinese traditions (C) Chinese were kept from high government offices (D) they allowed European traders to visit China
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Chinese were kept from high government offices
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3. A contributing factor in the decline of both the Tang and Yuan Dynasties was (A) failed military expeditions (B) weak leadership (C) corrupt government (D) the imposition of heavy taxes
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(D) the imposition of heavy taxes Under the Tang and Yuan Dynasties, rulers imposed heavy taxes to pay for their large armies and public works projects. This created great suffering among the people and left them vulnerable to famine. Eventually, disorder and rebellion erupted.
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4. A Chinese idea that did not gain acceptance in Japan was (A) the Chinese system of writing (B) Chinese artistic styles (C) Buddhism (D) the examination system
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(D) the examination system The attempt to introduce the Chinese examination system into Japan failed. Noble birth remained the key to securing a position of power.
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Political power in Southeast Asia has often relied on (A) control of the sea trade (B) a strong central government (C) Chinese patronage (D) piracy Southeast Asia’s strategic location—on the direct sea route between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea—has historically been an important source of wealth and power.
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(A) control of the sea trade Southeast Asia’s strategic location—on the direct sea route between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea—has historically been an important source of wealth and power.
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1. After the fall of the Roman Empire, one of the few unifying forces in (A) the Latin language (B) urban culture (C) written laws (D) the Church
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D) the Church As warfare and political turmoil fragmented Europe, the Church remained one of the few forces of stability in the Middle Ages.
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2. During the Middle Ages, Church authority became more (A) spiritual (B) secular (C) fragmented (D) monastic
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B) secular Beginning with Pope Gregory I, the Church expanded its sphere of influence into secular politics.
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3. The destruction of the Carolingian Empire was caused by (A) invasions (B) conflicts with the Church (C) a revolt of the nobles (D) wars among the Franks
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A) INVASIONS Between 800 and 1000, Vikings, Magyars, and Muslims invaded Europe, causing widespread chaos. As the central authority proved powerless, people turned to local leaders for security, leading to the rise of feudalism.
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4. The feudal system was based on (A) papal authority (B) respect for women (C) honor (D) mutual obligations
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(D) mutual obligations Under the feudal system, the lord exchanged land for military protection. Relationships between lords and their vassals were built on their obligations to one another, which could become very complex.
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5. A major reason feudal German states did not unify in the Middle Ages was (A) competition among German bishops (B) the Concordat of Worms (C) wars with Italian cities (D) rising power in France and England Rather than build royal power in Germany, Frederick I and the German kings after him tried to force an alliance with the pope. This strategy led to numerous wars with Italian cities.
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(C) wars with Italian cities Rather than build royal power in Germany, Frederick I and the German kings after him tried to force an alliance with the pope. This strategy led to numerous wars with Italian cities.
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The Crusades had the most favorable long-term impact on (A) the strength of the Pope (B) Christian-Muslim relations (C) trade (D) religious reformers
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(C) trade In the 1200s, both the success and the religious spirit of the early Crusades faded. One of their lasting positive effects was to stimulate trade between Europe and Southwest Asia.
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2. Europe’s great revival between 1000 and 1300 was due in large part to (A) new and better methods of farming (B) the growth of learning (C) cathedral building (D) the expansion of cities
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(A) new and better methods of farming The use of horses and the three-field system greatly increased agricultural production. This expanded food supply was necessary to support the growth of European civilization.
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3. Rights guaranteed by the Magna Carta include all of the following EXCEPT (A) no taxation without representation (B) equal rights for all citizens (C) a jury trial (D) the protection of law
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(B) equal rights for all citizens The Magna Carta protected the feudal rights of nobles from the power of the king. Over time, some of the rights outlined in this document were considered to apply to people of all classes.
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4. The bubonic plague reached Europe in (A) 1215 (B) 1302 (C) 1347 (D) 1412
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(C) 1347 Carried by infected fleas, the bubonic plague spread along trade routes throughout Asia and into Europe. It reached Sicily in 1347 and swept through Europe within four years. Almost 25 million Europeans were killed.
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. One major effect of the Hundred Years’ War was (A) to confirm the authority of the Italian pope (B) the resurrect the Age of Faith (C) to spark civil war in France (D) the birth of English and French nationalism
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D) the birth of English and French nationalism After the Hundred Years’ War, people no longer thought of the king as just a feudal lord, but as the champion of their country’s glory. This sense of the leader as the representative of the nation was an early form of nationalism.

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