Chapter 1: Theories of development (2)

question

theory
answer

set of ideas that helps to explain phenomena and facilitate predictions.
question

psychoanalytic theories
answer

describe development as primarily unconscious (beyond awareness) and heavily colored by emotion. Psychoanalytic theorists emphasize that behavior is merely a surface characteristic and that a true understanding of development requires analyzing the symbolic meanings of behavior and the deep inner workings of the mind.
question

Freud’s theory (psychoanalytic)
answer

As Freud listened to, probed, and analyzed his patients, he became convinced that their problems were the result of experiences early in life. He thought that as children grow up, their focus of pleasure and sexual impulses shifts from the mouth to the anus and eventually to the genitals. As a result, we go through five stages of psychosexual development: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital.
question

Freud: oral stage (birth- 1 1/2 years)
answer

infants pleasure centers on the mouth
question

Freud: anal stage (1 1/2- 3 years)
answer

child’s pleasure focuses on the anus
question

Freud: phallic stage ( 3 to 6 years)
answer

child’s pleasure focuses on the genitals
question

Freud: latency stage (6 years- puberty)
answer

child represses sexual interests and develops social and intellectual skills
question

Freud: genital stage (puberty onward)
answer

a time of sexual reawakening. -source of sexual pleasure becomes someone outside of the family.
question

Erikson’s theory (psychoanalytic)
Erikson's theory (psychoanalytic)
answer

eight stages of development unfold as eight stages of development unfold as we go through life. At each stage, a unique developmental task confronts individuals with a crisis that must be resolved. According to Erikson, this crisis is not a catastrophe but a turning point marked by both increased vulnerability and enhanced potential.
question

cognitive theories
answer

cognitive theories emphasize conscious thoughts
question

Piaget Cognitive Developmental Theory
answer

Piaget’s theory states that children go through four stages of cognitive development as they actively construct their understanding of the world. Two processes underlie this cognitive construction of the world: organization and adaptation. To make sense of our world, we organize our experiences.
question

Piaget: The sensorimotor stage (birth- 2 years)
answer

infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences (such as seeing and hearing) with physical, motoric actions-hence the term sensorimotor.
question

Piaget: The preoperational stage (2- 7 years)
answer

children begin to go beyond simply connecting sensory information with physical action and represent the world with words, images, and drawings.
question

Piaget: The concrete operational stage (7- 11 years)
answer

children can perform operations that involve objects, and they can reason logically when the reasoning can be applied to specific or concrete examples. ex. concrete operational thinkers cannot imagine the steps necessary to complete an algebraic equation, which is too abstract for thinking at this stage of development.
question

Piaget: The formal operational stage ( appears between the ages of 11- 15 and continues through adulthood)
answer

individuals move beyond concrete experiences and begin to think in abstract and more logical terms. As part of thinking more abstractly, adolescents develop images of ideal circumstances.
question

Vygotsky’s theory (cognitive)
answer

A sociocultural cognitive theory that emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development.
question

information-processing theory (cognitive)
answer

Emphasizes that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it. Central to this theory are the processes of memory and thinking.
question

Skinner’s Operant Conditioning (behavioral and social cognitive)
answer

operant conditioning- learning through reinforcement. classical conditioning- learning through association. * For Skinner the key aspect of development is behavior, not thoughts and feelings. He emphasized that development consists of the pattern of behavioral changes that are brought about by rewards and punishments.
question

Bandura’s social cognitive theory (behavioral and social cognitive)
answer

The view of psychologists who emphasize behavior, environment, and cognition as the key factors in development. * Bandura emphasizes that cognitive processes have important links with the environment and behavior. His early research program focused heavily on observational learning (also called imitation or modeling), which is learning that occurs through observing what others do.
question

Ethology
answer

stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution, and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods
question

Lorenz: imprinting (ethological)
answer

imprinting—the rapid, innate learning that involves attachment to the first moving object seen. *imprinting needs to take place at a certain, very early time in the life of the animal, or else it will not take place. This point in time is called a critical period graylag geese study: greylag geese, which will follow their mothers as soon as they hatch. Lorenz separated the eggs laid by one goose into two groups. One group he returned to the goose to be hatched by her. The other group was hatched in an incubator. The goslings in the first group performed as predicted. They followed their mother as soon as they hatched. However, those in the second group, which saw Lorenz when they first hatched, followed him everywhere, as though he were their mother.
question

Bowlby: theory of imprinting and theory of attachment (ethological)
answer

Bowlby stressed that attachment to a caregiver over the first year of life has important consequences throughout the life span. In his view, if this attachment is positive and secure, the individual will likely develop positively in childhood and adulthood. If the attachment is negative and insecure, life-span development will likely not be optimal. *sensitive period, and an example of this is the time during infancy when, according to Bowlby, attachment should occur in order to promote optimal development of social relationships.
question

Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory
answer

holds that development reflects the influence of several environmental systems. The theory identifies five environmental systems: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem
question

Bronfenbrenner: The microsystem
answer

the setting in which the individual lives. These contexts include the person’s family, peers, school, and neighborhood. It is in the microsystem that the most direct interactions with social agents take place—with parents, peers, and teachers
question

Bronfenbrenner: The mesosystem
answer

involves relations between microsystems or connections between contexts. ex. the relation of family experiences to school experiences – parent teacher conference
question

Bronfenbrenner: The exosystem
answer

consists of links between a social setting in which the individual does not have an active role. ex- a husband’s or child’s experience at home may be influenced by a mother’s experiences at work. The mother might receive a promotion that requires more travel, which might increase conflict with the husband and change patterns of interaction with the child.
question

Bronfenbrenner: The macrosystem
answer

involves the culture in which individuals live
question

Bronfenbrenner: The chronosystem
answer

the patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course, as well as sociohistorical circumstances transition ex- divorce sociohistorical ex- how career opportunities for women have increased since the 1960s.
question

eclectic theoretical orientation
answer

which does not follow any one theoretical approach but rather selects from each theory whatever is considered its best features * although theories are helpful guides, relying on a single theory to explain development is probably a mistake

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member