Chapter 1 Terms

abdominopelvic
body cavity that contains abdominal organs — stomach, liver, gall bladder, spleen, small intestine, large intestine. Pelvic portion contains the terminal part of the large intestine, the rectum, urinary bladder and internal female reproductive organs, ovaries, uterus, oviducts.

anabolism
linking together small molecules to make larger ones. This requires the input of energy, that is utilized from catabolic reactions.

anatomy
the study of structure

antebrachial
anatomical term pertaining to the front of the arm.

antecubital
anatomical term pertaining to the front of the lower arm (in front of the elbow)

anterior
directional term that means towards the front. (i.e.) The heart is anterior to the spinal cord. i.e. ventral

axillary
anatomical term meaning armpit.

bilateral
directional term meaning structures on both sides of the midline. The hands are bilateral.

brachial
anatomical term pertaining to the arm

bucchal
anatomical term pertaining to the cheek.

calcaneal
anatomical term pertaining to the heel

carpal
anatomical term pertaining to the wrist

catabolism
breaking down large molecules or macromolecules into smaller ones. The breaking of bonds in the large molecules, liberates energy to fuel anabolic reactions

caudal
directional term meaning away from the head. Usually used in four-legged animals.

cephalad
directional term meaning towards the head. Usually used in four-legged animals.

cervical
anatomical term pertaining to the neck

clavicular
anatomical term pertaining to the collar bone

contralateral
directional term that means on different sides of the midline. The right shoulder and left hip are contralateral to each other.

coxal
anatomical term for the hip

cranial
directional term meaning towards the head. Usually used in four legged animals.

deep
directional term that means away from the surface. She has a deep cut on her hand.

deltoid
referring to the top or curve of the shoulder

distal
directional term that means farther away from. It is used in relation to the limbs and their attachment site to the body. In reference to the hips, the knee is proximal, the ankle is distal.

dorsal
directional term that means towards the back. usually used in quadripeds (four-legged animals) i.e. posterior

femoral
anatomical term pertaining to the thigh

frontal
anatomical term pertaining to the forehead

homeostasis
keeping the body within certain boundaries or physiological limits. (i.e. temperature, pH, blood pressure)

inferior
directional term for below. (i.e.) The mouth is inferior to the nose.

inguinal
anatomical term for the groin or pelvic area

ipsilateral
directional term meaning on the same side of the midline. The right wrist and right knee are ipsilateral.

lateral
directional term meaning away from the middle or midline. The ears are lateral to the nose.

lingual
anatomical term that means pertaining to the tongue

lumbar
anatomical term for the loin or lower back

medial
directional term that means towards the middle or towards the midline. The nose is medial to the ears.

mental
anatomical term pertaining to the chin

metabolism
the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the body.

midline
an imaginary line that divides the body in to equal right and left sides.

nasal
anatomical term pertaining to the nose

nuchal
pertaining to the back of the neck

occipital
anatomical term for the back of the head

olecranal
anatomical term pertaining to the elbow.

orbital
anatomical term pertaining to the eye or eye socket

palmar
anatomical term dealing with the anterior side of the hand

patellar
anatomical term for the anterior knee

pectoral
anatomical term pertaining to the chest

phlanges
anatomical term for the fingers and toes. also digits is used.

physiology
the study of function

plantar
anatomical term pertaining to the sole of the foot

popliteal
anatomical term for the posterior knee

posterior
directional term that means towards the back. (i.e.) The spinal cord is posterior to the heart. i.e. dorsal

proximal
directional term that means closer to. This is used in relationship to arms and legs and their attachment site to the body. For example. In reference to the shoulder, the elbow is proximal, the wrist is distal.

scapular
anatomical term pertaining to the shoulder blade

sternal
anatomical term pertaining to the breastbone or sternum

superficial
directional term that means towards the surface. He has a superficial cut. (like a paper cut)

superior
is the directional term for above. (i.e.) the nose is superior to the mouth.

sural
anatomical term for the calf (posterior lower leg)

tarsal
anatomical term pertaining to the ankle.

temporal
anatomical term for the side of the head.

thoracic
body cavity containing esophagus, heart, lungs, great vessels, bronchi, and trachea. Protected by ribs, vertebra, the sternum. Inferior boundary is the diaphragm

ventral
directional term meaning towards the front, but usually used in quadripeds (four-legged animals) Same as anterior.

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