chap 12 psychological disorder

question

Axis I
answer

Symptoms that cause distress or impairment
question

Axis IV
answer

Psychosocial and environmental problems Parents divorce ex: relationship with girlfriend, unemployment
question

Delusions
answer

___ are firmly held, unshakable beliefs with no basis in reality and they commonly occur with schizophrenia.
question

hallucinations
answer

People with schizophrenia may have ___, the experience of perceiving things that do not actually exist. -can be auditory, visual, tactile, olfactory, or gustatory but all involve sensing something that is not actually there.
question

Which of the following are possible causes of phobic disorders?
answer

– Learning theorists interpret phobias as learned fears. – There is a biological component.
question

generalized
answer

People with ___ anxiety disorder worry about work, health and relationships, but also about little things such as weather their clothes fit just right.
question

Women
answer

Who is more likely to experience major depression – men or women?
question

Which of the following are the five types of anxiety disorders?
answer

-Phobic disorder – Generalized anxiety disorder – Post-traumatic stress disorder – Panic disorder -obsessive- compulsive disorder.
question

True
answer

True or false: People who experience bipolar disorder tend to alienate others with their talkativeness, inflated self-esteem, and indifference to the needs of others.
question

abnormal behavior can be defined in many ways, some of which are
answer

– behavior that is maladaptive. – behavior that is distressful – behavior that is deviant.
question

biopsychosocial
answer

The ___ perspective involves factors such as interactions between other perspectives
question

norms
answer

Cultural ___ provide guidance about how people should behave and what behavior is healthy.
question

Panic disorder
answer

An anxiety disorder that takes the form of discrete attacks involving difficulty breathing lasting from a few seconds to as long as several hours is called what?
question

it is a positive symptom.
answer

Andrea has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. She has a persistent delusion that she is the Virgin Mary. What is the best description for her delusion?
question

Which of the following is accurate in regard to “anxiety”?
answer

– It is disproportionate to the actual danger a person might be in. – It is a diffuse feeling of dread.
question

biological
answer

The ___ approach to psychological disorders attributes them to organic, internal causes.
question

Which of the following cognitive symptoms apply to Sara, who has a diagnosis of schizophrenia?
answer

– she is unable to interpret information and make decisions. – She cannot hold information in memory. – She has problems sustaining attention.
question

The diathesis-stress model
answer

Ed’s parents were born diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. Ed had a very stressful childhood and has himself been recently diagnosed. This combination of genetic predisposition and the experience of extreme stress exemplifies which of the following models?
question

Which of the following can be contributing factors to the development of schizophrenia?
answer

– Problems in neurotransmitters – Extreme environmental stressors – A biological predisposition
question

Madeleine has decided to seek therapeutic services from someone who describes himself as having a “sociocultural perspective.” This means that
answer

– he may be interested in Madeleine’s family. – he may say that environmental experiences play a role in the creation of psychological disorders
question

Which of the following best captures the definition of abnormality as a sense of personal discomfort?
answer

– Behavior is abnormal if it produces a sense of distress, anxiety, or guilt in an individual.
question

Which of the following symptoms are typical of PTSD?
answer

– Problems with memory and conentration – Feeling numb – Flashbacks
question

genetic
answer

As ___ similarity to a person with a diagnosis of schizophrenia increases, so does the person’s risk of being diagnosed with schizophrenia.
question

Which of the following are depressive disorders?
answer

– Dysthymic disorder – Major depressive disorder
question

dopamine
answer

a well-accepted biological explanation for schizophrenia states that those diagnosed with schizophrenia have a issues with the neurotransmitter ___.
question

salad
answer

the term word ___ is used to describe incoherent, loose word associations that sometimes appear in the speech of a person diagnosed with schizophrenia.
question

The term “catatonia” refers to:
answer

a state of immobility
question

personality disorder
answer

a disorder characterized by a set of inflexible, maladaptive behavior patterns that keep a person from functioning appropriate in society
question

anorexia nervosa may require hospitalization, and feeding tubes, however, there are other forms of treatment:
answer

drug therapies psychotherapy
question

anorexia nervosa
answer

is to starvation, whereas, bulimia nervosa is to purging.
question

a mood disorder involves cognitive, behavioral, and somatic symptoms, as well as interpersonal difficulties
answer

true
question

bulimia nervosa
answer

is an eating disorder in which an individual binge-and-purge.
question

binge eating disorder
answer

is characterized by recurrent patterns of eating large amounts of food during which a person feels a lack of control.
question

example of a compulsion
answer

Alex has to wash his hands many times a day because he fears germs.
question

negative symptoms of schizophrenia
answer

lack of emotion reduced goal-directed behavior
question

medical model or perspective
answer

the perspective or model that suggests when an individual displays symptoms of abnormal behavior, the root cause will be found in a physical examination, which may reveal a hormonal imbalance, a chemical deficiency, or a brain injury.
question

panic disorder symptoms
answer

heart palpitations, shortness of breath, and faintness.
question

schizophrenia
answer

-it is characterized by disordered thought. – a common cause of relapse is failure to take medications – it is a serious psychological disorder.
question

culture
answer

establishes the norms by which people evaluate their own behaviors.
question

learned helplessness theory
answer

according to Seligman’s (1975) research, when a person encounters an aversive stimulus that they are unable to avoid, they become apathetic.
question

behavioral approach
answer

to understanding depression argues that stress of life produce a reduction in positive reinforcers that an lead to major depression.
question

psychoanalytic perspective
answer

believe that depression is associated with early loss and grieving, which is then turned inwards. by contrast, the behavioral perspective views depression as the result of a lack of positive reinforcers.
question

the links between biology and mood disorders are well established
answer

true
question

discrimination
answer

prejudice and ____ labels of psychological disorders can be damaging because they may lead to negative stereotypes.
question

abnormal maladaptive behavior
answer

interferes with one’s ability to function in life effectively.
question

major depressive disorder
answer

for the past three weeks, Amin has felt lethargic, had problems sleeping and making decisions, lost pleasure and interest in activities he previously enjoyed, and has had feelings of worthlessness. the most likely diagnosis for Amin is
question

individuals with psychological disorders must recognize all of the following to overcome any stigmas
answer

– their strengths – carry on despite their disorder – confront their disorders.
question

DSM-IV-TR
answer

-there are almost 400 disorders – there are five axes – it is published by the American Psychiatric Association.
question

Axis V
answer

the DSM-IV-TR requires a numerical estimate of 0-100 of the level of functioning that a person is experiencing.
question

dissociative
answer

in the most severe form of ___ amnesia, individuals cannot even recall their names.
question

a dissociative fugue
answer

is a disorder in which the individual leaves home and sometimes assumes a new identity.
question

a psychological disorder stigmatizing
answer

– stereotyping and labeling are involved – the reality of stigma prevents people from being open about their struggles the mentally ill are stereotyped as being dangerous.
question

bipolar
answer

people who experience ___ disorder often show a recklessness that produces self-injury-emotionally and sometimes physically
question

examples of a manic episode in bipolar disorder
answer

– Ellie stays up all night and cleans the house – Adam goes on an all day shopping spree and empties his checkbook – Lara called everyone she knows, asking if she can borrow money for her great adventure.
question

dissociative identity disorder
answer

is defined by one individual exhibiting multiple personalities, each of which has a unique set of likes and dislikes and their own reactions to situations – a person displays characteristics of two or more distinct personalities.
question

example of a delusion related to schizophrenia
answer

believing that you are a prophet
question

dissociative disorders
answer

are psychological dysfunctions characterized by the separation of different facets of a person’s personality that are normally integrated.
question

reason may develop a dissociative disorder
answer

– to keep disturbing perceptions from reaching conscious awareness – to keep disturbing memories from reaching conscious awareness.
question

what is meant by the definition of abnormality as deviation from the average?
answer

when we statistically calculate what behaviors are rare in a specific culture and label those deviations from the norm as abnormal.
question

antisocial personality disorder
answer

is a disorder characterized by guiltlessness, law-breaking, exploitation of others, and superficially charming.
question

which of the following are brain structure difference identified through research on the brains of people diagnosed with schizophrenia?
answer

– smaller than normal prefrontal cortices – structural problems in prenatal development -enlarged ventricles.
question

how prevalent is suicidal thought among college students?
answer

two out of three college students have thought about suicide on at least one occasion.
question

there are three eating disorders that are the most common
answer

– bulimia nervosa – binge eating -anorexia nervosa
question

the biopsychosocial
answer

Ray is a homeless person with a serious drug problem, and both his parents have been diagnosed with schizophrenia (s has Ray). In addition, he had a very difficult upbringing. Ray’s situation best exemplifies which theoretical approach to psychological disorders?
question

compulsions
answer

Caleb has disturbing, intrusive thoughts and then he finds that he must act upon them. the disturbing thoughts are obsessions and the acting upon them are____
question

reasons cause of OCD?
answer

-there a genetic component – there is a depletion of the neurotransmitter serotonin.
question

which of the following are psychological factors that can contribute to suicide?
answer

– substance abuse -metal illness -stress
question

dysthymic disorder (DD)
answer

is characterized by chronic depression with fewer symptoms than major depressive disorder.
question

dysthymic disorder
answer

Jamie has been depressed for most days for at least two years, and has had sleep problems, low energy, and low self-esteem. Jamie’s diagnosis is most likely:
question

reasons cause of PTSD
answer

– difficulties in using coping mechanisms -exposure to a traumatic event.
question

schizophrenia
answer

people with a diagnosis of _____ account for the largest percentage of those hospitalized for mental disorders.
question

the risk of suicide for a person diagnosed with schizophrenia is ___ times that of general population
answer

8
question

borderline
answer

Bonnie has been diagnosed with a personality disorder. her sense of self is unstable and she is often irritable and unpredictable. which of the following personality disorders best describes Bonnie?
question

which of the following explain cognitive views of depression according to the learned helplessness model of Seligman?
answer

Martin has experience a number of unpleasant, uncontrollable events. this lack of control leads him to feeling helpless and depressed.
question

cognitive explanations for mood disorders
answer

– there many be distortions in thinking – there may be negative expectations rumination may be involved
question

phobia
answer

in the case of a _____. the danger posed by an anxiety-producing stimulus is typically small or non-existent but the person sees it as great.
question

medical
answer

critics complain that the DSM-5 relies too much on the _____ perspective and it treats psychological disorders as if they are such illnesses.
question

research has identified some socioeconomic factors that are related to the development of depression. what are these factors ?
answer

-poor standard of living – ethnic and gender variations – poverty -unemployment
question

dissociative identity disorder
answer

was rarely diagnosed before 1980 when, for the first time, it was added as a category in the third edition of the DSM.
question

what are the hypothesized “causes” of DID?
answer

– a possible genetic component – therapist suggestion -childhood abuse
question

phobias
answer

can have only a minor impact on people’s lives if the stimulus that triggers the phobia can be easily avoided.
question

reasons for variations in suicide rates include the degree to which there are ____ and ___ norms against it.
answer

cultural; religious
question

Aaron Beck’s theory regarding mood disorders is based on the idea that
answer

faulty cognitions underlie depressed feelings.
question

biological factors of suicide
answer

– genetic factors – low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin – poor physical health
question

neurotransmitters
answer

a biochemical explanation of the cause of mood disorders generally focuses on regulation problems in ____
question

causal explanations for panic disorder
answer

– people may misinterpret physiological arousal – hormonal factors may be involved – there may be a familial predisposition
question

____ are nearly twice as likely as ____ to develop depression
answer

women; men
question

significantly
answer

cross-cultural surveys show that the incidence of major depression varies ___ from one culture to another.
question

how do phobias differ from generalized anxiety disorder?
answer

for a phobia there is always a specific identifiable stimulus that causes the anxiety reaction
question

contributing factors to the development of schizophrenia
answer

– problems in neurotransmitters -extreme environmental stressors – a biological predisposition
question

one of the great genetic risks for development a mood disorder is
answer

having a biological parent who suffers from a mood disorder
question

an unemployed, homeless woman living on the street may be said to display abnormal behavior, even if she has chosen to live this way. her inability to adapt to the requirements of society is what makes her “abnormal”. which definitions of abnormality best explains this ?
answer

– abnormality as the inability to function effectively – abnormality as maladaptive
question

one of the most consistent findings of neurobiological abnormalities in individuals with mood disorders is altered brain-wave activity during___
answer

sleep
question

when we use terms like “symptoms” “mental illness.” and “mental hospitals,” we are reflecting the terminology used in the_____ perspective
answer

medical
question

the most common cause of relapse in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia is
answer

failure to adhere to medication regimen
question

what was dissociative identity disorder previously known as ?
answer

multiple personality disorder
question

Ed has had numerous involvements with the legal system. he has three children by different women who he has never married. he is currently incarcerated for dealing drugs and has been diagnosed with a personality disorder by the prison psychiatrist. what personality disorder best describes Ed?
answer

antisocial personality disorder
question

reflect the American Psychiatric Association’s definition of abnormality?
answer

– it is a mental illness -it manifests itself as affecting the way that a person thinks, behaves, and interacts with others.
question

a person with a diagnosis of schizophrenia might display which of the following disturbances of movement?
answer

-unusual mannerisms -immobile facial expressions -catatonia
question

Denise was sitting in her office one day when someone went flying past her window and hit the pavement below. since that time, she has been diagnosed with PTSD. Denise relives this traumatic event in her mind many times a day. what is the proper name for her symptom?
answer

a flashback
question

Hallucinations
answer

is a sensory experience that occur in the absence of real stimuli -seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting or feeling something in absence of real stimuli
question

the term “catatonia” refers to
answer

a state of immobility

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member