Ch. 4 Sociology

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social interaction
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what people do when they come together
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social structure
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the typical patterns of a group, such as its usual relationships between men and women or students and teachers
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culture
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the broadest framework that determines what kind of people we become
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social class
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large amounts of people who have similar amounts of income and education and who work at jobs that are roughly equivalent in prestige
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social status
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the position that someone occupies
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status set
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all the statuses or positions that you occupy
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ascribed status
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involuntary; race, sex, etc.
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achieved status
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voluntary; efforts, accomplishments, etc.
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status symbols
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signs that identify a status
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roles
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the behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a status
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groups
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consist of people who regularly interact with one another
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social institutions
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the ways that each society develops to meet its basic needs
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hunting and gathering
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they depend on hunting and gathering for their survival and have the fewest social divisions
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pastoral societies
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(herding societies) based on the pasturing of animals
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horticultural societies
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(gardening societies) based on the cultivation of plants by the use of hand tools
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pastoral and horticultural
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set the stage for inequality. this led to wars, slavery, and a concentration of wealth
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agricultural
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based on large-scale agriculture; plows drawn by animals are the source of food production
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industrial
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a society based on the harnessing of machines powers by fuels. brought equality
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industrial revolution
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the third social revolution, occurring when machines powered by fuels replaced most animal and human power
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postindustrial
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based on information, services, and the latest technology rather than on raw materials and manufacturing
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biotech society
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the economy will center on applying and altering genetic structures- both plant and animal- to produce food, medicine, and materials
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micro-sociology
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stereotypes and personal space
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dramaturgy
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social life is like a drama or a stage play
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role performance
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the particular emphasis or interpretation that we give a role. our \”style\”
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role conflict
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what is expected of us in one status is incompatible with what is expected of us in another status
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role strain
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the same status contains incompatible roles

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