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Ch. 4: Ritual & Notes

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Ritual
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A patterned, recurring sequence of behaviors.
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Religious Ritual
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A ritual that involves the manipulation of religious symbols.
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Prescriptive Rituals
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A ritual that a deity or religious authority requires to be performed.
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Situational Rituals
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A ritual that arises as needed, frequently in times of crisis.
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Crisis Rituals
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A ritual that arises spontaneously, frequently in times of crisis.
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Periodic (or calendrical) Rituals
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A ritual that is performed on a regular basis as part of a religious calendar.
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Occasional Rituals
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A ritual that is performed when a particular need arises.
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Technological Rituals
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A ritual that attempts to influence or control nature, especially in those situations that affect human activities and well-being.
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Therapy Rituals
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A ritual whose function is to cure.
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Ideological Rituals
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A ritual that delineates codes of proper behavior, promotes community solidarity, articulates the community’s worldview, and assists the community in managing crises.
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Salvation Rituals
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Ritual in which an individual is changed in some way, temporarily or permanently.
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Hunting and Gathering Rites of Intensification
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A ritual whose purpose is to influence nature in the quest for food.
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Protective Rituals
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A ritual that is performed at the start of, or during, a dangerous activity to protect the participants or to protect the community against disaster.
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Social Rite of Intensification
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A type of ideological ritual that functions to reinforce the belief system and the values of the society.
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Offerings
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Economic exchanges designed to influence the supernatural.
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Sacrifices
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A gift designed to influence the supernatural in which an animal is killed.
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Ethnobotany
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The anthropological study of the use of plant material, especially in healing.
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Anti-Therapy Rituals
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A ritual that is performed to bring about illness, accident, or death.
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Cursing Rituals
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An anti-therapy ritual that involved reciting a curse to bring about illness and death.
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Rites of Passage
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A ritual that occurs when an individual changes status, serving to legitimize the new status and to imprint it on the community’s collective memory.
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Status
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A social position that is defined in terms of appropriate behavior, rights and obligations, and its relationship to other statuses.
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Rank
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The relative placement of status in the society.
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Circumcision
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A surgical procedure during which the foreskin is removed from the penis.
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Separation
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The first phase of a rite of passage in which an individual is removed from his or her former status.
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Transition
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The second phase of a rite of passage during which a person is in a liminal state and is moved from one status to another.
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Incorporation
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The final stage of a rite of passage in which the individual is reintroduced to the community in his or her new status.
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Menarche
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A young woman’s first menstruation.
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Liminality
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The state of ambiguous marginality that characterizes the transition phase of a rite of passage.
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Communitas
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A state characterized by a sense of equality, community, and camaraderie.
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Age Set
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A social group that contains members of one sex within a specific age span.
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Age Grade
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a specific status defined by age, such as warrior or elder
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Cicatrization
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Scar formation at the site of a cut or wound, with the use of material such as ash
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Subincision
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Form of genital cutting where the underside of the penis is cut and the urethra slit open.
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Clitoridectomy
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A surgical procedure characterized by removal of the clitoris as well as parts or all all of the labia minora.
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Infibulation
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Form of female genital cutting including excision of the clitoris, labia minora, and most of the labia majora.
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Pharaonic Infibulation
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A surgical procedure performed on women that involves the complete removal of the clitoris and the labia minora and majora, the two sides of the wound then being stitched together, leaving a small opening.
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Pilgrimage
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A journey to a sacred place or a sequence of sacred spaces at which the rituals are performed.
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Tabu
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Objects and persons that are supernaturally prohibited. May also refer to certain behaviors that would bring about negative consequences through supernatural means.
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Mana
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An impersonal supernatural force.
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Ritual and Myth
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Two of the most basic elements in religious practices are:
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Religious ritual
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BLANK BLANK lends a sense of validity/stability/social unity
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“Ritual”
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BLANK is: -Technically a repetitive act -often the utilization/ manipulation of symbols -often based on myth or gives rise to new myths
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Situational, crisis
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BLANK and BLANK rituals are spontaneous and informal
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Diwali (Festival of Lights)
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BLANK is a celebration of India. Originally a Hindu festival, it is now celebrated publicly. It is celebrated on the darkest night (the new moon) of the month Kartik.
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Diwali
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The story behind BLANK says that when the two brothers, Rama and Lakshama, return to their kingdom of Ayodhya after a 14-year exile, the people celebrate by lighting up their houses with oil lamps.
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False (“removal” instead “return”)
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Diwali lights symbolize the return of spiritual darkness. True or false?
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harvest
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Originally, Diwali was related to the BLANK season
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sowing, harvesting
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The most important rituals are originally associated with periods of BLANK and BLANK
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Passover
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Jewish commemoration of the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt
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Day, First, Fruits
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Shavout is also known as Yom Habikkurim, or the BLANK of the BLANK BLANK, seven weeks after Passover
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Occasional
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Many BLANK rituals are associated with nature and the impact of nature on the agricultural cycle, or with the important events in the life of an individual (birth, marriage, death)
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False (also refers to other economic activities such as fishing, herding, & farming)
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Hunting and Gathering rites of intensification applies only to hunting and gathering activities. True or False?
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“First-fruit ceremonies”
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These are rituals connected to the commencement of the time when particular wild foods are available, and that reaffirm the rights of particular social units to specific foods and areas of food gathering
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Inuit
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The dependence of seals for survival is an important aspect of the BLANK people
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Nuliajuk
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BLANK, also known as the Mother of the Sea, is believed to live at the bottom of the sea and controls all the animals in her watery domain
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seals
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The Inuit believe that a young beautiful woman was tricked by a handsome human into believing he was human, when in fact he was a seabird. Her father came to the rescue, but as they struggled against the raging storm caused by the angered seabird, the father threw her onto the sea. As she clung on to the boat, the father cut off her fingers and those pieces became different BLANK
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Cahuilla
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The BLANK people of the southern California desert sent out individuals to gather small amounts of food. Food from the winter stores would be added, and members of each kin group would eat a ritual portion of the food in a ceremony thanking the supernatural for providing the food in a ceremony that lasted 3 days and 3 nights.
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True
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The Cahuilla ritual of 3 days and 3 nights is primarily an example of a hunting and gather rites of intensification, which is a technological ritual. True or false?
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False (It is very important! She could cause many difficulties for hunters)
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The keeping of important customs is not important to Nuliajuk (Mother of the Sea)
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Nuliajuk
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BLANK is at her happiest when he hair is neat, which is possible if the people behave (referring to the Inuit myth)
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Shaman
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The role of the BLANK is to visit Nuliajuk in her home at the bottom of the sea to comb her hair and thereby appease her
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Seals
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For the Inuit, BLANK have souls, and must be respected and appeased
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False (“fresh” not “salt”)
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The Inuit give a drink of salt water to the seals before butchering them. True or false.
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Vikings
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the BLANK christened a new ship by “blooding the keel,” which involved a ritual human sacrifice in which a person was tied to the keel of the boat, to be crushed beneath it when the boat was launched
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Protective
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“Blooding the keel” is an example of a BLANK ritual
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Protective
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The Yoruba of Nigeria in West Africa believe in Ogun, “god of iron”. Taxi drivers nowadays decorate their cars with his symbols and even on occasion sacrifice an animal to ask for his protection. This is an example of what kind of ritual?
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Swazi
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Among the BLANK of East African Cattle culture area, the death of king can potentially cause great damage. Therefore, all measures are made to avoid his death, or his contact with death. When he dies, no one knows, until an heir has been selected. Following the mourning, rituals are held to re stabilize and rejuvenate the nation
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Social rites of intensification
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Jew’s reciting of the kaddish (“mourner’s prayer”) is primarily an example of a BLANK BLANK BLANK BLANK
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offerings and sacrifices
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Within a social rite of intensification, what are two ways, beside prayer, that one can communicate with a deity?
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Aztecs
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Among the BLANK, it was necessary to sacrifice an animal to avoid the ceasing of the Sun
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Sand paintings
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BLANK BLANK of the Navaho is part of a therapy ritual, which lasts 1-9 days; it strives to restore balance and harmony, and thus cure an illness.
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anti-therapy (“cursing”)
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Bone-pointing is an example of an BLANK ritual
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Ideological
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Rites of Passage is a type of BLANK rituals
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status
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The social position mother, husbands, teachers, blacksmith, etc are considered status or rank?
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rank
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The relative placement of each position in the society is either status or rank?
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Separation
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For an American wedding, the series of events preceding the ceremony, ending with the formal farewell from the daughter’s parents, is considered what stage in the rite of passage?
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Transition
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The ceremony in an American wedding is what stage in the rite of passage?
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Incorporation
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When the couple reenters society as “Mr. and Mrs” in an American ceremony, is called what in the rite of passage?
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Coming-of-Age Rituals
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This is a ritual that marks the transition from childhood to adulthood
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Yanomamo (South America)
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Girls are secluded in a simple enclosure the first time they menstruate for three days. This separation phase in a rite of passage belongs to what cultural group?
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Transition
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for the Yanomamo coming of age ritual, the BLANK stage lasts 3 days, during which the girl sits on the floor eating little, shaves her head, and removes ornaments in order to be as unattractive as possible. This is done to prevent evil spirits from seducing her and taking her away to be married, leaving behind her dead body.
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Incorporation
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The newly young Yanomamo woman cleanses herself and puts on a new apron and ornaments. This is considered what rite of passage stage?
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Hajj
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In the Islamic BLANK, a sense of communitas takes place, in which all pilgrims wear the same white garments and perform the same rituals regardless of wealth or social standing.
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Cycle of life
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The Apache’s culture heroine, the White Painted Woman, symbolizes the BLANK BLANK BLANK of women, due to the different directions associated with each stage in life. East (girl), South (Adult), West (older), North (old woman)
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pulling the sun
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The last day, the Apache perform the ritual BLANK BLANK BLANK which has to be carefully planned as the singers raise their hands over their heads. The sun rises over the mtns as they simultaneously sing the last note
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Matrilineal
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Apache are a BLANK society
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True
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After the coming of age ritual is completed, the Apache girls run back to the places they were staying, but are not seen doing this because the 4 large poles that were erected at the beginning fall down, distracting the audience. True or False?
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cycle
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Afterward, the Apache girl is given 4 pieces of food; 3 from the singer, one from the grandmother, symbolizing the woman’s BLANK of time.
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Incorporation
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the difference between the U.S.’s military secular rites of passage and tribal rites of passage is in the BLANK stage, in which military people don’t change their status from before.
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Pain
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BLANK is often an important element of a rite of passage, such as that experienced in scarring, piercing, etc.
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boundary
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The removal, blackening, or sharpening of teeth to create a BLANK between human and other animals
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Berit Mila (circumcision)
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Judaism’s BLANK is prescriptive and a sign of covenant between God and man
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Symbolic
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Australian Aborigines considered subincision to be BLANK of a serpent deity
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False (“honor and control of female sexuality”)
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Female cutting is seen as protecting the family’s money and interests. True or false?
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False (It is nowhere in the Qur’an)
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The Qur’an prescribes female genital cutting. true or false?
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Location
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The difference between Judeo-Christians’ creation story and that of the Navaho is that of the BLANK of the creation story; Navajo’s live in the landscape in their creation story.
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False (“Social rites of intensification and therapeautic”)
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Pilgrimages defined as a series of rituals with a sequence of sacred spaces can be considered primarily considered prescriptive and periodic. True or False.
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pilgrimages
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Bernadette Soubirous, from feb. to jul. 1858, witnessed 18 Marian apparitions at a grotto near the town of Lourdes. This is now a site of BLANK by Catholics seeking a cure from illness
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rite of passage
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A pilgrimage can also be seen as a BLANK BLANK BLANK, where it is a requirement and upon return the person has gained a new social status
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Hajj
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A constant repetition of the Shahadah, or statement of belief, is a component of the BLANK
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white
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In the hajj, pilgrims all wear BLANK color, as a representation of equality before God.
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Kaaba
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The Islamic pilgrims walk around the BLANK seven times, located at the Great Mosque.
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Mina
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Islamic pilgrims walk to the plain of BLANK, after the walking around the Kaaba. This is a place where it is believed the word of God was revealed to Mohammad.
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Arafat Valley
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Is considered by Muslims the place where Mohammad gave his last sermon.
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Jamraat
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BLANK represents the three pillars where Mohammad threw stones at Satan when he tried to dissuade him from following the path of Allah.
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Huichol
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The BLANK people of central Mexico, reenact the journey of the Ancient Ones, their ancestors during the creation of their world
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Wirikuta
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The Huichol take an annual journey of more than 300 miles to BLANK
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False (“becomes an Ancient One, not play acting”)
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During their journey, the each Huichol assumes the role of an Ancient One through play acting. True or false?
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Peyote
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At the end of their pilgrimage, the Huichol consume BLANK, “the footprint of deer” to see what the gods see.
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Tabu
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The breaking of a BLANK is thought to be automatic, rather than being at the decision of a deity
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True
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Nothing can be done to save an individual that breaks a tabu, but there are rituals to amend the individual’s situation. True or false?
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chief
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In Polynesia, the BLANK is a reservoir and conductor of mana, therefore everything about him is dangerous to commoners, including himself and whatever he touches
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Kashrut
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BLANK is a Jewish law regarding what foods can and cannot be eaten and how foods are prepared
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Kosher
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BLANK foods are those that are proper according to Kashrut, and prescribed by the Torah
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Shechitah
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A type of ritual slaughter, according to Jewish culture
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Menstrual Tabus
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BLANK BLANK are found among the Mehinaku, an Amazonian group, Judaism, Islam, and Orthodox Christianity.
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Mehinaku
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BLANK of the Amazon believe there is a piranha that bites a woman each month; men are not allowed to make contact with them because it is considered dangerous.