Revolutions and National States in the Atlantic World

Flashcard maker : Mary Browning
Popular sovereignty
the idea that rulers drew power from their subjects, and were therefore at their subjects’ mercy. This challenged the idea of divine right, or of rulers being naturally (or supernaturally) superior to the people they ruled.
Enlightenment
a philosophical and scientific revolution in which people were encouraged to question the most basic principles of their life. This lead to numerous social and political upheavals.
John Locke
formulated the of the most influential theories of contractual government.
Second Treatise of Civil Government
held that government arose in the remote past when people decided to work together, form civil society, and appoint rulers to protect and promote their common interests.
American Revolution
when colonists resisted once the British attempted to reinvigorate imperial control.
The Seven Year’s War
this war merged with a larger contest for imperial supremacy, where British and French forces battled each other in Europe, India, and N. America.
The Declaration of Independence
July 4, 1776 the Continental Congress came up with the \”Unanimous Declaration of the 13 United States of America\”. All men are equal, life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
Taxation without representation
term for colonies revolting against the British high taxes. They thought they should have some representatives in the British Parliament.
George Washington
Strong military leader for the colonies against the British in the fight for independence.
The French Revolution
revolutionists sought to change the government, lead to many deaths, poverty, and a brief downfall
Old Regime (ancient regime)
\”old order\”, sought to replace with new political, social, and cultural structures.
Estates General
Three estates generals, and each represented a class of the French society, they represented the opinions of each class and they voted according to them.
Louis XVI
ruler around the time of the French Revolution. A weak ruler that tried (and failed) to change taxes to be for the rich too.
Marie-Antoinette
King Louis XVI’s wife, nicknamed \”madame deficit\”
Third Estate
the section of the Estates General consisting of everyone else other than the nobility and the clergy
The National Assembly
the assembly created when by the third estate when they seceded
Storming of the Bastille
the invasion of the Bastille in Paris which symbolized a turning of the tides of power and loyalty in France
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
written by the National Assembly to show the principles of the revolution
Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite
this was the slogan for the french revolution.
Limited Monarchy
the king or queen known as the monarch is the head of state, but abide by a constitution made by the people. These types of governments usually have a parliament in this case that would be The National Assembly.
The Convention
better known as the national convention it was a gathering of the legislative and constitutional people. They met and decided what to do about france and the king and queen.
Robespierre
was a french lawyer and one the most prominent politicians during his time. He supported the death penalty and the abolishment of slavery. He supported the equal rights of all men. Also supported the declaration of the rights of man and the citizens.
Jacobins
these were the people that maximilien robespierre was the leader of. They were of the extreme group of the revolutionist.
Levee en masse
refers to able bodied men to defend their country. It was used a more of a military term.
The First Republic
fearing military defeat and counterrevolution, revolutionary leaders created the Convention, a new legislative body elected by universal manhood suffrage, which abolished monarchy and proclaimed France a republic
The Reign of Terror
chaos reached its peak when Maximilien Robespierre and the raidcal Jacobin party dominated the Convention; Jacobins believed that France needed complete restructuring; sought to eliminate influence of Christianity by closing chruches; promoted \”cult of reason\”; granted increased rights to women and encouraged citizens to wear working-class clothes; made frequent use of the guillotine
The Directory
group of Conservative men of property who seized power and ruled France after the instability of of revolutionary leadership; unable to resolve the economic and military problems; came to an end when Napoleon seized power
Olympe de Gouges
revolutionary and strong advocate of women’s rights; wrote Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen; called for more education and demanded that women share equal rights in family property; she asserted that freedom and equality were inalienable rights of women as well as men, and thought women should have the right to vote, speak their minds freely, participate in the making of law, and hold public office
The Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen
written by Olympe de Gouges in 1791; claimed the same rights for women that revolutionary leaders had granted to men in August 1789
Napoleon
brought political stability to France; made peace with Roman Catholic Church and concluded an agreement with the pope (Concordat- provided that the French state would retain church lands seized during revolution, but state agreed to pay clerics’ salaries, recognize Roman Catholic Christianity as preferred faith, but extend freedom of religion to Protestant Christians and Jews); great deal of support from people who supported revolution; established secret police that detained suspected political opponents; ignored elective bodies and surrounded himself with loyal military officers who ensured that representative assemblies did not restrict authority
Civil Code
the revised body of civil law, helped to stabilize French society. affirmed political and legal equality of all adult men and established merit-based society in which individuals qualified for education and employment because of talent rather than birth or social standing
Napoleon’s Empire
worked to stabilize France while extending authority throughout Europe, led an army of 600,000 soldiers to Moscow, captured the city but the Russians set it on fire which left the army without any supplies with the winter coming in shortly
The Haitian Revolution
the only successful slave revolt in history
Santo Domingo
civilization which possessed three major groups: white colonials which were the European born Frenchman and the lower class, slaves, and gens de couleur; slave owners were greatly outnumbered and feared a rebellion
Gens de couleur
French for \”people of color\” many were artisans, domestic servants, or overseers
Toussaint Louverture
freed slave who joined the slave rebellions in 1791. By 1793 he had built a strong army and by 1797 he led an army of 20,000 that went on to control most of Saint-Domingue. He also wrote a Constitution that granted equality for all citizens. The only thing he stopped short of doing was declaring independence from France because he didn’t want to provoke Napoleon into attacking the island, Haiti
Peninsulares
Latin American officials from Spain or Portugal, resented by residents in South America
Miguel de hidalgo
rallied indigenous people and mestizos against colonial rule; captured and executed by conservative creoles; symbol of Mexican independence
Simon Bolivar
republican that assembled an army that surprised and crushed the Spanish army in Columbia; Later, he campaigned in Venezuela, Ecuador, and Peru, coordinating his efforts with other creole leaders such as Bernardo O’Higgins
Wars of Latin American Independence
United with other Spanish territories for an effective army; ex. Simon Bolivar, Jose de San Martin, and Bernardo O’Higgins
Conservatism
viewed society as an organism that changed slowly over generations, generated philosophers such as Edmund Burke; favored the American Revolution but disapproved of the French Revolution which was seen as a chaotic and irresponsible assault on society
Liberalism
The opposite of conservativism. Liberals encouraged change and associated it with progress. Liberals also favored republican government. They believed Voting was a privilege and not a right.
Edmund Burke
A conservative who believed that society was a pact between a people’s ancestors, the current generation, and the future generation. He condemned radical change.
John Stuart Mill
A liberal who was a philosopher, social reformist, and economist. He wanted minorities to be represented properly. He also opposed the wealthy to ensure freedoms for the poorly organized majority. He believed in having high personal income taxes and also pushed universal suffrage.
William Wilberforce
The leading spokesman of the anti-slavery movement in England during the late 18th century. He proposed the successful bill that ended the slave trade in England.
Mary Astell
A woman who wanted women to have equal rights as men.
Mary Wollstonecraft
a self-educated woman who wrote A Vindication of the Rights of a Woman, along with other Women’s Rights essays. She argued that women had all rights that men had.
A Vindication of the Rights of Women
an influential essay written by Mary Wollstonecraft that argued that women possessed all the rights that Locke granted to men. She insisted on the right of women to education: it would make them better mothers and wives, she said, and would enable them to contribute to society by preparing them for professional occupations and participation in political life.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
an American feminist who went to London to attend an antislavery conference but found that the organizers barred women from participation. Infuriated, Stanton returned to the United States and began to build a movement for women’s rights. She organized a conference of feminists who met at Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848. The conference passed twelve resolutions demanding that lawmakers grant women rights equivalent to those enjoyed by men. Called specifically for women’s rights to vote, attend public schools, enter professional occupations, and participate in public affairs.
Nationalism
intense feelings of national identity fueled ideologies of nationalism. Nationalist leaders maintained that their member of their national communities had a common destiny that they could best advance by organizing independent national states and resolutely pursuing their national interests. Extended to cultural nationalism – national thought sought to deepen appreciation for the historical experiences and the cultural accomplishments of the national community
Mazzini
a nationalist activist who formed a group called Young Italy that promoted independence from Austrian and Spanish rule and the establishment of an Italian national state.
Alfred Dreyfus
the height of anti-semitism came with the conviction of Alfred Dreyfus by a military court. A Jewish army officer who was accused of spying for Germany in 1894. He was found innocent of the charges and eventually had the verdict reversed on appeal, Dreyfus was the focus of bitter debates about the trustworthiness of Jews in French society. The trial was a key event in the evolution of Zionism.
Zionism
the idea that the only defense against anti-Semitism lay in the mass migration of Jews from all over the world to a land that they could call their own.
Theodor Herzl
(1860-1904) he was a Jewish journalist from Vienna and was there at the Dreyfus trial. After the trial he concluded that anti- Semitism was a problem that the people could not solve. Then in 1896 he wrote Judenstaat, in this pamphlet he argued that the the only way to stop persecution was a mass migration of the Jews to their own land
The Congress of Vienna
(1814-1815) representatives of the Great power joined together to meet and attempt to restore Europe to prevolutionary order, the congress was lead by Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria, together they dismantled Napoleon’s empire and restored the lands to those who had lost it to Napoleon
Cavour
Count Camillo de Cavour; he was a prime minister to the King Vittore of Piedmont and Sardinia. He was a cunning diplomat and allied with France to get rid of Austrian authorities in Northern Italy then he turned his attention to the South
Garibaldi
was a soldier and nationalist from Italy, he had an army of one thousand men in red shirts, him and his army swept through Sicily and southern Italy beating government forces and getting more recruits, 1860 he met King Vittore near Naples and there he delivered Southern Italy into his hands
Otto von Bismarck
was a wealthy landowner that was chosen to be King Wilhelm of Prussia’s prime minister, he was the master of the politics, he reformed and expanded Prussia’s army, between 1864 and 1870 he provoked three wars with Denmark, Austria, and France and won
Realpolitik
means the politics of reality and was used to describe Otto Von Bismarck
King Wilhelm I
the king of Prussia, that with the help of Bismarck became the emperor of Germany.

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