Ch. 24 AP euro flashcards

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Literacy
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the ability to read and write
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William Whewell
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Coined the word ‘scientist’ as analogy to ‘art’ and ‘artist.’ He analyzed inductive reasoning into three steps. He wrote on inductive reasoning, but is considered a proponent of H-D.
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Positivism
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A philosophy developed by the French count of Saint-Simon. Positivists believed that social and economic problems could be solved by the application of the scientific method, leading to continuous progress. Popular in France and Latin America. (616)
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Charles Darwin
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1809-1882 English naturalist and scientist whose theory of evolution through natural selection was first published in ‘On The Origin of the Species\” in 1859.
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Herbert Spencer
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\”Survival of the fittest\”; Social Darwinism between societies and cultures
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Social Darwinism
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Applied Darwin’s theory of natural selection and \”survival of the fittest\” to human society — the poor are poor because they are not as fit to survive. Used as an argument against social reforms to help the poor.
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T.H. Huxley
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\”Darwin’s Bulldog\”, seized on the newly discovered Archaeoptery
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Charles Lyell
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(1797-1875): Principles of Geology (three volumes, published 1830-1833); established the doctrine of uniformitarianism.
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Friedrich Nietzsche
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German philosopher who said that \”God is dead,\” that lackadaisical people killed him with their false values. Said that Christianity and all religion is a \”slave morality.\” He also said that the only hope for mankind was to accept the meaninglessness of human life, and to then use that meaninglessness as a source of personal integrity and liberation. Also stated that from this meaninglessness people called Supermen would exert their mind on other and rise to power. he appealed to people who liked totalitarianism.
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Kulturkampf
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(cultural struggles) An exetreme church state conflict waged by Bismark in Germany during the 1870’s in response to a perceived threat to German political unity from the Roman Catholic church.
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First Vatican Council
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promulgated the dogma of papal infallibility when speaking officially on matters of faith and morals
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Ernest Renan
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1823 -1892 A Fench historian and man of letters. Wrote on origins of Christianity and life of ancient Israel. Like Strauss’ work, his further undermined many articles of faith. THESE WERE TIMES OF MATERIAL EMPHASIS. INCREASINGLY, PEOPLE WERE FALLING AWAY FROM THE CHURCH.
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Salafi
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believed there was no inherent contradiction between science and Islam, emphasized rational reading of Koran, saw Ottoman decline as result of Muslim error
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Wahhabi Movement
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Islamic Reform movement that called for a Return to the purity and simplicity of Muhammad’s teaching
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Ernst Mach
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Believed in Logical Positivism – bringing scientific method into philosophy. Idea that scientific method must be used to investigate.
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Uncertainty principle
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The idea that we do know no anything for certain and all we know is possibilities, probabilities, and tendencies. Put forth by German physicist Heisenberg. Heisenberg’s theory that the behavior of subatomic particles is questioned, suggesting that all of the physical laws governing the universe are based in uncertainty.
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Naturalism
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(philosophy) the doctrine that the world can be understood in scientific terms without recourse to spiritual or supernatural explanations A nineteenth-century literary movement that was an extension of realism and that claimed to portray life exactly as it was.
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Modernism
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A cultural movement embracing human empowerment and rejecting traditionalism as outdated. Rationality, industry, and technology were cornerstones of progress and human achievement.
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Keynesian economics
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Theory based on the principles of John Maynard Keynes, stating that government spending should increase during business slumps and be curbed during booms.
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Postimpressionism
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The late-nineteenth-century movement in European painting that followed Impressionism, in which artists emphasized their subjective viewpoint or the formal qualities of the painting.
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Sigmund Freud
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1856-1939; Field: psychoanalytic, personality; Contributions: id/ego/superego, reality and pleasure principles, ego ideal, defense mechanisms, psychoanalysis, transference
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Max Weber
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-german sociologist and political economist who influenced social theory and research and sociology itself
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Racism
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Belief that one race is superior to another
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Zionism
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A worldwide movement, originating in the 19th century that sought to establish and develop a Jewish nation in Palestine. Since 1948, its function has been to support the state of Israel.
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Ethnological society
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excluded women from its discussions on the grounds that the subjects were unfit for women and that women would lower the level of discussion
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Karl Vogt
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leading german anthropologist who believed that women were scientifically proven to be inferior to men
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Karen Horney
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neo-Freudian, psychodynamic; criticized Freud, stated that personality is molded by current fears and impulses, rather than being determined solely by childhood experiences and instincts, neurotic trends; concept of \”basic anxiety\”
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Ellen Key
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maintained that motherhood is crucial to the society and that government rather than husbands should support moms and children
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Virginia Woolf
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1882-1941. English writer. Mrs. Dalloway. A Room of One’s Own.

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