CH 2

Florence Nightingale was trained in
Kaiserswerth, Germany and Sisters of Charity
Florence Nightingale & the Crimean War
she took nurses to the British Hostpial in Turkey

provided care to soldiers, cleaned and organized the hospital

Florence Nightingale established the first
training school for nurses at St. Thomas’ Hospital in London
Mary Seacole is
a Jamaican nurse and business women who was the greatest black Briton.
Mary Seacole was _______ by Nightingale during the Crimean war
rejected
Mary Seacole was an expert on
cholera
During the Civial War, who worked as nurses?
catholic orders/nuns
During the Civil War, what 6 women became leaders?
Dorothea L. Dix – superintendent of women nurses by union army.

Sojourner Truth (abolitionist) & Harriet Tubman (freed slaves) were nurses

Susie King Taylor – taught soldiers to read and write

Mary Ann “Mother” Bickerdyke – made cleanliness a priority and brought order out of chaos

Clara Barton – angel of the battlefield. set up field hospital for wounded and dying in Virginia and also founded the American Red Cross

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civil war helped ________ professional nursing practice
advance
the success in the reform of military hospitals served as
a model for reform of civilian hospitals nationwide
Sanitary Commission
relief agency to support wounded and sick soldiers –> lead to creation of nursing schools
American Medical Association Meeting with chair Samuel Gross did what
recommend training schools for nurses in large hospitals
inadequate conditions in many hospitals sparked
the need for social reform
Linda Richards was
the first trained nurse in the US
Nightingale created school-modeled training schools where?
Bellevue Training School for Nurses in NYC

Connecticut Training School for Nurses in New Haven

Boston Training School for Nurses at MGH

Segregation in Nursing – Boston
New England Hospital for Women and Children in Boson only admitted one African American and one Jewish student who met qualifications
Segregation in Nursing – Atlanta
Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary in Atlanta – 2 year long diploma program
Chicago World’s Fair was
a meeting of the minds
Isabel Hampton Robb @ Chicago World’s Fair
protested the lack of uniformity across nursing schools (inadequate curriculum development and nursing education)
Isabel Hampton Robb founded
Nurses Associated Alumnae of the US and Canada, which is now known as the American Nurses Association
Chicago Worl’d Fair – National League for Nursing & American Society of Superintendents of Training Schools for Nurses were formed to
address issues in nursing education
International Council of Nurses was dedicated to
uniting nursing organizations of all nations
ANA excluded minority nurses until
1916
Henry Street Settlement was formed by
Lillian Wald and Lavinia Dock
What did Lillian and Lavinia do in regards to the Henry Street Settlement?
sought finances and formalized public health

treated minor illnesses, prevented disease transmission, provided health education

Margaret Sanger and Lower East Side
immigrant women

safe contractive and family planning

Charity Organization Society – President Devine
provides a black district nurse to work with african americans
Jessie Sleet Scales and Elizabeth Tyler established
Stillman House, which is a branch of the Henry Street Settlement.
Namahyoke Curtis was
a contract nurse, first trained african american
Spanish American War Created the need for Nurses so development of
Army Nurse Corps and Navy Nurse Corps
Anita McGee was
head of Hospital Corp during Spanish American War
Permissive licensure laws
nurses did not have to be registered to practice but could not use the title of registered nurse unless registered
Mary Adelaide Nutting & National Committee on Nursing
charged with adequate supply of nurses
Army School of Nursing
Vassar Training Camp for Nurses
Red Cross nursing
widespread public education in home care and hygiene
Goldmark Report
study of nursing education

advocated for establishment of schools of nursing

encouraged establishment of rural programs of midwifery

Mary Breckinridge – Rural midwifery service
she demonstrated that nurses could play a significant role in providing primary rural health care
The Great Depression & nursing
many families could no longer afford private duty nurses, forcing many nurses into unemploument
Social Security Act of 1935 enhanced the practice of public health nursing by
strengthening public health services and providing medical care for children with disability and blind persons
WWII – more nurses needed so
congress enacted substantial support for nursing education

-military and collegiate programs of nursing formed the Cadet Nurse Corps

-schooling in exchange for commitment to serve

Hill-Burton Act
funding for hospitals

growth of new facilities and increased need for nurses

Julie O. Flikke
first nurse to be promoted to the rank of colonel in US Army
When HIV came into play
universal precautions were born

there were changes in equipment – needles, IV catheters, gloves

Medical Technology and life support
Karen Ann Quinlan – hospital didn’t take her off ventilator even though family wanted her off

Nancy Cruzan – family wanted her off feeding tube but hospital didn’t want to

stereotype of women in the mid 1800s
women were intellectually inferior to men, and hence women were not called on to make decisions or think for themselves
11th, 12th and 13th century – men as nurses under military and religious orders
men supply strength or control of patients when needed (psychiatric nursing, critical care – lifting patients for example)
Men in nursing
men are likely to be younger, employed full-time in nursing, have non-nursing education, and nursing as a second career
reasons why men become nurses
desire to help people

nursing is a growth profession with career paths

desire for a stable career

nurses were rated the highest among a number of professions and occupations on
honesty and ethics
Sigma Theta Tau International Sponsored Woodhull Study on Nursing & the Media
they examined articles from newspapers and magazines…

found that “nurses and the nursing profession are essentially invisible to the media and, consequently, to the american public”

Johnson & Johnson Campaign
to enhance the image of nursing profession, recruit new nurses and educators, and to retain nurses currently in the system
The Truth about Nursing nonprofit organization
their mission is to “increase public understanding of the central, front-line role nurses play in modern health care”
Aging of America – Trends
people are living longer

the number of elderly people is increasing as the number of adults in early midlife is decreasing

current nursing strategies to tackle aging
care of elderly in nursing programs

gerontology courses

gerontological clinical nurse specialists and NPs

Africans and deep distrust of health care system
US Public Health Service Syphilis Study at Tuskegee
African Americans and Hispanics differed from Whites in that they
expected discrimination in the health care system
concept of race depends on
self identification by respondents; that is, the individual’s perception of his/her racial identity
pharmacogenetics
mechanism of action of medications can be determined by genetic structures
biomedical technology
complex machines or implantable devices

nurses assume responsibility

internal causes of nursing shortage
salary issues, long hours, increased responsibility for unlicensed workers, significant responsibility with little authority
external causes of nursing shortage
changes in demand for nursing services, the increasing age of the american population, greater acuity of hospitalized individuals, public perceptions of nursing as a profession, etc.
not enough doctoral or masters prepared nurses are
produced to meet demands for education
doctorally prepared and masters degree prepared faculty are now, on average, more than 50 years of age, foreshadowing
a large number of retirements in the next decade
nurses with advanced degrees who are otherwise eligible for faculty appointments
are being hired into more lucrative private sector or clinical problems
two solutions for shortage of RNs
increase supply of nurses

create less trained workers to supplement nursing workforce

contributing factors to nursing shortage:
aging nurses and population
four major initiatives to provide stable workforce of registered nurses
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act

Robert Wood Foundation

Johnson & Johnson’s Campaign for Nursing’s Future

ANCC Magnet Recognition Program

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