Ch. 15 THERAPY

question

Mental health therapies are classified as either ___________ therapies or ____________ therapies.
answer

psychological; biomedical
question

Some therapists blend several psychotherapy techniques and so are said to take an ___________ approach.
answer

eclectic
question

The goal of Freud’s psychoanalysis, which is based on his personality theory, is to help the patient gain __________.
answer

insight
question

Freud’s theory aimed to bring ___________ feelings into __________ awareness where they can be dealt with.
answer

repressed; conscious
question

Psychoanalytic theory emphasizes the formative power of ____________ ___________ and their ability to mold the adult.
answer

childhood experiences
question

Freud’s technique in which a patient says whatever comes to mind is called __________ _____________.
answer

free association
question

When, in the course of therapy, a person omits shameful or embarrassing material, ___________ is occurring. Insight is facilitated by the analyst’s ______________ of the meaning of such omissions, of dreams, and of other information revealed during therapy.
answer

resistance; interpretation
question

When strong feelings, similar to those experienced in other important relationships, are developed toward the therapist, ________________ has occurred.
answer

transference
question

Today, psychoanalysis ___________(is/is not) commonly practiced in the United States. Critics point out that psychoanalysts’ interpretations are hard to _________ ___ _________ and that therapy takes a long time and is very ______________.
answer

is not; prove or disprove; expensive
question

Therapists who are influenced by Freud’s psychoanalysis but who talk to the patient face to face are _____________ therapists. In addition, they work with patients only ________________ (how often?) and for only a few weeks or months.
answer

psychodynamic; once or twice a week
question

These therapists focus on _______ across important relationships.
answer

themes
question

Without embracing all aspects of Freud’s theory, these therapists aim to help people gain _______ into their childhood experiences and ____________ dynamics.
answer

insight; unconscious
question

Humanistic therapies attempt to help people meet their potential for _________. Like psychodynamic therapies, humanistic therapies attempt to reduce inner conflicts by providing clients with new ______________.
answer

self-fulfillment; insights
question

The humanistic therapy based on Rogers’ theory is called _____________-___________ therapy, which is described as ___________ therapy because the therapist ________ (interprets/does not interpret) the person’s problems.
answer

client-centered; nondirective; does not interpret
question

To promote growth in clients, Rogerian therapists exhibit _________, __________, and ____________.
answer

genuineness; acceptance; empathy
question

Rogers’ technique of echoing, restating, and clarifying what a person is saying is called ________ ________. Given nonjudgmental environment that provides __________ _________ ___________, patients are better able to accept themselves as they are and to feel valued and whole.
answer

active listening; unconditional positive regard
question

Three tips for listening more actively in your own relationships are to __________, __________ ___________, and __________ __________.
answer

paraphrase; invite clarification; reflect feelings
question

Behavior therapy applies principles of ____________ to eliminate troubling behaviors.
answer

learning
question

One cluster of behavior therapies is based on the principles of _________ __________, as developed in Pavlov’s experiments. This technique, in which a new incompatible response is substituted for a maladaptive one, is called _______________________. Two examples of this technique are ______________ ___________ and _____________ ___________.
answer

classical conditioning; counterconditioning; exposure therapy; aversive conditioning
question

Mary Cover Jones’ procedures were refined by __________ as the ____________ _______________. One form of this therapy, systematic desensitization, assumes that one cannot simultaneously be ___________ and relaxed.
answer

Joseph Wolpe; exposure therapies; anxious
question

The first step in systematic desensitization is the construction of a ___________ of anxiety-arousing stimuli. The second step involves training in _______ ________. In the final step, the person is trained to associate the _______ state with the __________-arousing stimuli.
answer

hierarchy; progressive relaxation; relaxed; anxiety
question

For those who are unable to visually imagine an anxiety-arousing situation, or too afraid or embarrassed to do so, _______ ________ __________ therapy offers a promising alternative.
answer

virtual reality exposure
question

In aversive conditioning, the therapists attempts to substitute a ___________ (positive/negative) response for on the is currently _________ (positive/negative) to a harmful stimulus. In this technique, a person’s unwanted behaviors become associated with _____________ feelings. In the long run, aversive conditioning ___________ (does/does not) work.
answer

negative; positive; unpleasant; does not
question

Reinforcing desired behaviors and withholding reinforcement for undesired behaviors are key aspects of ___________ ____________.
answer

behavior modification
question

Therapies that influence behavior by controlling its consequences are based on principles of __________ conditioning.
answer

operant
question

One application of this form of therapy to institutional settings is the ________ _________, in which desired behaviors are rewarded.
answer

token economy
question

Therapists who teach people new, more constructive ways of thinking are using _________ therapy.
answer

cognitive
question

One variety of cognitive therapy attempts to reverse clients’ ________ beliefs about themselves, their situations, and their futures, which is often associated with _________, by helping them see their irrationalities. This therapy was developed by ___________.
answer

negative; depression; Aaron Beck
question

Psychologists call the relentless, overgeneralized, self-blaming behavior of depressed people ________________.
answer

catastrophizing
question

An integrative therapy that combines an attack on negative thinking with efforts to modify behavior known as ________-________ therapy. This type of therapy is an effective treatment program for anxiety and mood disorders, because they share a common problem: _________ _________. It is also useful for _______-_______ _________; people are taught to relabel their problem behaviors.
answer

cognitive-behavioral; emotion regulation; obsessive-compulsive disorder
question

Although _______ therapy does not provide the same degree of therapist involvement with each client, it does save time and money and permits therapeutic benefits from _______ interaction.
answer

group; social
question

The type of group interaction that focuses on the fact that we live and grow in relation to others is _______ _________.
answer

family therapy
question

In this type of group, therapists focus on improving ___________ within the family.
answer

communication
question

Many people also participate in ______-_______ and _______ groups. One such group is _______ _________.
answer

self-help; support; Alcoholics Anonymous
question

A majority of psychotherapy clients express _______ (satisfaction/dissatisfaction) with their therapy.
answer

satisfaction
question

Clinicians tend to ________ (overestimate/underestimate) the effectiveness of psychotherapy .
answer

overestimate
question

One reason clinicians’ perceptions of the effectiveness of psychotherapy are inaccurate is that clients justify entering therapy by emphasizing their ___________ and justify leaving therapy by emphasizing their ________-_________.
answer

unhappiness; well-being
question

In hopes of better assessing psychotherapy’s effectiveness, psychologists have turned to ____________ research studies.
answer

controlled
question

The debate over the effectiveness of psychotherapy began with a study by ______________; it showed that the rate of improvement for those who received therapy _________ (was/was not) higher than the rate for those who did not.
answer

Hans Eysenck; was not
question

In the best studies of the effectiveness of therapy, researchers randomly assign people on a waiting list to therapy or no therapy and later evaluate everyone. These are _________ ________ trials.
answer

randomized clinical
question

A statistical digest of the results of many studies is called _____-________. Overall, the results of such analyses indicate that psychotherapy is, on average, __________ (some-what effective/ineffective).
answer

meta-analysis; somewhat effective
question

Studies show that when people seek psychological treatment , their search for other medical treatment _______ (does/does not) decrease. Thus, psychotherapy is ________-effective.
answer

does; cost
question

Comparisons of the effectiveness of different forms of therapy reveal _______ (clear/no clear) differences, that the type of therapy provider ______ (matters greatly/does not matter), and that whether therapy is provided by an individual therapist or within a group __________ (makes a difference/does not make a difference).
answer

no clear; does not matter; does not make a difference
question

Some forms of therapy are best for particular problems. With phobias, compulsions, and other specific behavior problems, ____________ ____________ therapies have been the most effective. Other studies have demonstrated that anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression may be effectively treated with _______ or ___________- __________ therapy.
answer

behavioral conditioning; cognitive; cognitive-behavioral
question

As a rule, psychotherapy is most effective with problems that are _________ (specific/nonspecific).
answer

specific
question

Clinical decision making that integrates research with clinical expertise and with patient preferences and characteristics is called __________-_________ ___________.
answer

evidence-based practice
question

Today, many forms of ______ ______ are touted as effective treatments for a variety of complaints.
answer

alternative therapy
question

Aside from testimonials, there is very little evidence based on __________ research for such therapies.
answer

controlled
question

In one popular alternative therapy, a therapist triggers eye movements in patients while they imagine __________ ________. This therapy, called _______ _______ ______ ___________ ________, has proven __________ (completely ineffective/somewhat effective) as a treatment for nonmilitary ________-__________ _______ _________. However, skeptics point to evidence that ________ ________ is just as effective as triggered eye movements in producing beneficial results. The key seems to be in the person’s _______ traumatic memories and in a _________ effect.
answer

traumatic events; eye movement and desensitization reprocessing; somewhat effective; post-traumatic stress disorder; finger tapping; reliving; placebo
question

For people with a ________ ________ of depression symptoms, timed ______ ________ therapy may be beneficial.
answer

seasonal pattern; light exposure
question

All forms of psychotherapy offer three benefits: _________ for demoralized people; a new _________ on oneself; and a relationship that is ________, __________, and __________.
answer

hope; perspective; caring; trusting; empathetic
question

The emotional bond between therapist and client–the ________ ________–is a key aspect of effective therapy. In one study of depression treatment, the most effective therapists were those who were perceived as most ________ and __________.
answer

therapeutic alliance; empathetic; caring
question

Generally speaking, psychotherapists’ personal values ________ (do/do not) influence their therapy. This is particularly significant when the therapist and client are from different ________. Another area of potential value conflict is ___________.
answer

do; cultures; religion
question

In North America, Europe, and Australia, most therapists reflect their culture’s ___________.
answer

individualism
question

Difference in values may help explain the reluctance of some ________ populations to use mental health services
answer

minority
question

The American Psychological Association suggests that a person should seek help when he or she has feelings of ____________, a deep and lasting ______________, _____-__________ behavior, disruptive __________, sudden _______ shifts, and ____________ rituals, for example.
answer

hopelessness; depression; self-destructive; fears; mood; compulsive
question

As noted earlier, therapy involving changing the brain’s functioning is referred to a ________ therapy. The most widely used biomedical treatments are the _______ therapies. Thankful to these therapies, the number of residents in mental hospitals has ________ (increased/decreased) sharply.
answer

biomedical; drug; decreased
question

The field that studies the effects of drugs on the mind and behavior is _______________________.
answer

psychopharmacology
question

To guard against the _________ effect and normal ___________, neither the patients nor the staff involved in a study may be aware of which condition a given individual is in; this is called a ________-____________ procedure.
answer

placebo; recovery; double-blind
question

One effect of _________ drugs such as _____________ is to help those experiencing _________(positive/negative) symptoms of schizophrenia by decreasing their responsiveness to irrelevant stimuli.
answer

antipsychotic; chlorpromazine; positive
question

The antipsychotic drugs work by blocking the receptor sites for the neurotransmitter ____________.
answer

dopamine
question

Long-term use of antipsychotic drugs can produce ________ ____________, which involves involuntary movements of the muscles of the __________, ________, and ___________.
answer

tardive dyskinesia; face; tongue; limbs
question

Xanax and Ativan are classified as __________ drugs.
answer

antianxiety
question

These drugs depress activity in the _________ _________ ___________.
answer

central nervous system
question

When used in combination with _________ _________, these drugs can help people relieve the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
answer

exposure therapy
question

Antianxiety drugs have been criticized for merely reducing ______________, rather than resolving the underlying _____________. These drugs can also create a __________ ___________.
answer

symptoms; problems; learned response
question

Drugs that are prescribed to alleviate depression are called _________ drugs. Because the most commonly prescribed drugs in this group are increasingly being used to treat strokes and other disorders, including ___________ disorders, ___________-____________ disorder, and ______________ ___________ ___________, they are more commonly called __________ ___________ __________ inhibitors.
answer

antidepressant; anxiety; obsessive-compulsive; posttraumatic stress disorder; selective serotonin reuptake
question

One example of this type of drug is __________, which works by blocking the reabsorption and removal of _________ from synapses. Increased serotonin promotes _____________, the development of new brain cells. Drugs that work by blocking the reabsorption or breakdown of norepinephrine and serotonin are called _______-__________ drugs. These drugs have __________ (more/fewer) side effects.
answer

fluoxetine (prozac); serotonin; neurogenesis; dual-actions; more
question

Also effective in calming anxious people and energizing depressed people is _______ _________, which has positive side effects. Even better is to use antidepressant drugs, which work __________ (bottom-up/top-down).
answer

aerobic exercise; bottom-up; cognitive-behavioral; top-down
question

Although people with depression often improve after one month on antidepressants, studies demonstrate that a large percentage of the effectiveness is due to natural recovery or a ________ __________.
answer

placebo effect
question

To treat the emotional highs and lows of _______ disorder, a _________-__________ drug such as the simple salt ________ is often prescribed
answer

bipolar; mood-stabilizing; lithium
question

Another effective drug in the control of mania was originally used to treat epilepsy, it is ___________.
answer

depakote
question

The therapeutic technique in which the patient receives an electric shock to the brain is referred to as __________ therapy, abbreviated as ________.
answer

electroconvulsive; ECT
question

ECT is most often used with patients suffering from severe __________. Research evidence _______ (confirms/does not confirm) ECT’s effectiveness with such patients. The mechanism by which ECT works is ____________.
answer

depression; confirms; unknown
question

An electrical device implanted in the chest stimulates a nerve deep in the neck; the device periodically sends signals to the limbic system. This is called _______ ________ __________.
answer

vagus nerve stimulation
question

Another treatment being investigated for treatment of patients with depression is _____-_____ stimulation of a neural hub that bridges the frontal lobes to the limbic system.
answer

deep-brain
question

A painless procedure called _____ _______ ________ _________ aims to treat depression by presenting pulses through a magnetic coil held close to a person’s skull above the right eyebrow. Unlike ECT, this procedure produces no __________, ___________ loss, or other side effects. Although how it works is unclear, one explanation is that it energizes the brain’s left _________ __________, which is relatively inactive in depressed patients.
answer

repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; seizures; memory; frontal lobe
question

The biomedical therapy in which a portion of the brain tissue is removed or destroyed is called _______________.
answer

psychosurgery
question

In the 1930s, Moniz developed an operation called the ________. In this procedure, the _________ lobe of the brain is disconnected from the rest of the brain.
answer

lobotomy; frontal
question

Today, most psychosurgery has been replaced by the use of _________ or some other form of treatment.
answer

drugs
question

A recent approach to therapy promotes ___________ ___________ change, which includes regular aerobic exercise, adequate sleep, light exposure, social connection, anti-rumination, and nutritional supplementation.
answer

therapeutic lifestyle
question

The relative success of this _____________ approach seems to confirm that everything psychological is also biological and that we are all social creatures.
answer

biopsychosocial
question

Lifestyle changes may also help prevent some disorders by building an individual’s ___________. Struggling with challenging crises can also lead to ___________ _____________.
answer

resilience; posttraumatic growth
question

Psychotherapies and biomedical therapies locate the cause of psychological disorders with the __________. An alternative viewpoint is that many psychological disorders are responses to _________________________________.
answer

person; a disturbing and stressful society
question

According to this viewpoint, it is not just the __________ who needs treatment but also the person’s _________ ____________.
answer

person; social context
question

One advocate of _____________ mental health, George Albee, believes that many social stresses undermine people’s sense of ____________, ___________ __________, and _____-_______. These stresses include ___________, work that is ____________, constant __________, ___________, __________, _________, and ___________.
answer

preventive; competence; personal control; self-esteem; poverty; meaningless; criticism; unemployment; racism; sexism; heterosexism
question

Albee’s views remind us that disorders are not just biological and not just environmental or psychological because we are all an ____________ _________________ system.
answer

integrated biopsychosocial

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member