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Ch. 14 & 16

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Why should speakers use audiovisual aids?
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– audiovisual aids add interest, simplify complex topics, and help your audience remember your speech. –
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What are the seven types of audiovisual aids?
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• Speaker • Assistants • Objects • Printed materials: maps, charts, graphs, drawing, and photographs • Videos and DVDs • Digital visual aids • Technological and audio aids: mp3 iPods
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What is the reason for using a speaker as a audiovisual aid?
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-it makes it easy to explain an action
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What is the reason for using assistants as audiovisual aid?
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– it helps you surmount unique challenges in using audiovisual aids
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What is the reason for using printed materials as audiovisual aid?
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-these help simplify complex information
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What is the reason for using videos and DVD’s as a audiovisual aid?
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-vividly explains, demonstrates, or illustrates key points
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What is the reason for using Digital Visual aids as audiovisual aid?
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-they help show charts and maps
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What is the reason for using technological and audio aids as audiovisual aid?
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-you can integrate sounds
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What is the reason for using objects as audiovisual aid?
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– because any object can be used
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What are the three aspects of audience analysis that merit special consideration when choosing audiovisual aids?
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– Forum-where the speech is held. -Demographics-Race, age, gender, region etc. -Prior exposure-may provide influences your audience’s response to those aids.
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What are the eight guidelines for preparing audiovisual aids?
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• Make sure your aids support your point • Consider your audience • Test the size of visual aids • Test the legibility of visual aids • Test the volume and clarity of audio aids • Create contrast • Keep you aids simple • Practice using your aids • Be prepared to speak without aids
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What are the four guidelines for using audiovisual aids during your speech?
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• Make sure everyone can see and hear your aids • Control audience interaction with your aids • Maintain eye contact • Remember the purpose of your aids
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What are the advocate fact, value, or policy claims?
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• Fact claims- assert that something is true or false • Value claims- attach a judgment (good, bad, moral, immoral) to a subject. • Policy claims- advocate action by organizations, institutions, or audience members.
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How can you frame your argument based on audience disposition (attitude towards your speech)?
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-Frame around the type of audiences hostile, sympathetic, neutral
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latitude of acceptance-
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-the range of positions on a given issue that are acceptable to them.
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latitude of rejection
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-set of positions that are unacceptable
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Boomerang effect
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– pushing your listeners to oppose your idea even more vigorously than they already do.
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How can a speaker influence the commitment of an audience?
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– Strengthen commitment, weaken commitment, and promote action.
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How can your listeners’ disposition(s) affect your approach to persuading them?
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– If your audience members already agree with your perspective you may try to strengthen their commitment. If many members of the audience disagree with your perspective on an issue you may attempt to weaken their commitment to their viewpoint, and you also may seek to persuade audience members to take up a specific action
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What are and what is th most effective organizational pattern for fact, value, and policy claim?
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• Fact claims: casual pattern, comparison pattern, categorical pattern • Value claims: criteria-application pattern, categorical pattern • Policy claims: motivated sequence pattern- aims to establish five main points. Also problem-cause-solution patter, comparative advantage format.
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How can you relate your message to your listeners’ needs?
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– if you can relate your message to your listeners various needs then you’ll be more likely to persuade them. Select main points and sub-points to needs that you identify.
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How can you connect your message to your listeners’ values?
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– Explain how your proposals align with their values
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How can you adequately acknowledge your listeners’ reservations?
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– consider using a two-sided argument in which you acknowledge an argument against your thesis and then use evidence and reasoning to refute that argument.
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Why is it important to demonstrate how your audience benefits in a persuasive appeal?
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-You can enhance your persuasiveness if you show audience members how they can stay true to their core beliefs.
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How can a persuasive speaker ensure that they are using ethical strategies?
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– research your facts, note any biases, and attribute your research properly.
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What are the differences between fact, value, and policy claims?
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Fact Claim- assert that something is true or false; claims that are debatable can make especially strong persuasive speech topics Value claim- attach a judgment to a subject Policy claim- advocate action by organizations, institutions, or members of your audience
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What organizational patterns could be used to organize a fact claim?
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• Causal Pattern • Comparison Pattern • Categorical Pattern
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What organizational patterns could be used to organize a value claim?
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• Criteria-Application Pattern • Categorical Pattern
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What organizational patterns could be used to organize a policy claim?
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• Motivated Sequence • Problem-cause-Solution • Comparative advantage format