Ch. 11Achievement, Work, and Careers

question

c
answer

Self determination, curiosity, challenge, and effort are all _____ in adolescents’ motivation. A) extrinsic factors B) cognitive factors C) intrinsic factors D) incentives
question

a
answer

Rewards and punishments are _____ in adolescents’ motivation. A) extrinsic factors B) cognitive factors C) intrinsic factors D) control tools
question

a
answer

Rod’s science teacher has a list of objectives that must be met for the year but they can be met by completing many different types of assignments. The teacher allows the students to select the projects that interest them, and the students set their own goals and make their own plans to reach them. According to research, Rod is likely to A) have higher achievement gains in science. B) pick the easiest assignments even if some of the more difficult ones interest him more. C) do a poor job on his assignments because he picked them rather than the teacher. D) do none of these.
question

a
answer

Professor Daube teaches Theories of Personality. He has his students analyze the song lyrics of famous songwriters, past and present, and see if they can determine the writers’ specific personality traits based on their writings. According to research, Professor Daube’s students should _____ than students who are taught Theories of Personality by lectures only. A) be more cognitively engaged with their learning B) learn less C) be less motivated D) none of these
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d
answer

Which of the following statements regarding intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is TRUE? A) Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are at work in the real world of students’ lives. B) Parents and teachers should encourage students to become intrinsically motivated. C) Extrinsic motivation by itself is not a good strategy. D) All of these are true.
question

c
answer

Perceived causes of outcomes are known as A) analyses. B) influences. C) attributions. D) precursors.
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a
answer

Kayla, an honors student, received a C+ on her report on Pearl Harbor. She says that the teacher doesn’t like her because she is an atheist and her teacher is a very religious woman. She believes that she received a low grade because of this dislike. Kayla is making _____ about the cause of her low paper grade. A) an external attribution B) an internal attribution C) a fictional finalism D) a paranoid delusion
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b
answer

Whitney gets an A- on her science test on ecology. She studied for several afternoons with a group of classmates and she says that the test was difficult but fair. Whitney’s explanation for her good test grade is an example of A) an external attribution. B) an internal attribution. C) a cognitive belief. D) a behavioral attribution.
question

b
answer

Stephanie’s biology class had to go to the computer and follow a set of directions that guided them through the steps that a surgeon would use to do open-heart surgery. While most of her classmates thought it was a fun assignment. Stephanie says, \”I’m horrible at these computer simulations,\” even though she has done them in other classes and done well. Stephanie is showing a A) phobia about the human body. B) helpless orientation. C) negative orientation. D) fear of computers.
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c
answer

A recent study has shown a link between mastery goals and A) attitudes. B) grades. C) effort. D) empathy.
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d
answer

Adolescents with a performance orientation are focused on A) skill development. B) self-efficacy. C) accountability. D) winning.
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b
answer

Andre focuses on winning the prize for the best essay on civil disobedience. He believes that he will be happy if he wins. Andre has a A) mastery motivation. B) performance motivation. C) competitive orientation. D) fixed mindset.
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d
answer

Which of the following statements related to mastery and performance learning is NOT true? A) Mastery and performance goals combined often benefit students’ success. B) No Child Left Behind encourages a performance rather than a mastery orientation on the part of the students. C) For performance-oriented individuals, skill development and self-efficacy take a backseat to winning. D) Mastery and performance goals are mutually exclusive.
question

c
answer

Carol Dweck refers to the cognitive view that individuals develop for themselves as their A) self ideal. B) self-appraisal. C) mindset. D) mindmap.
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a
answer

Justin is extremely goal-oriented, optimistic, and driven. Carol Dweck would say that Justin has a A) growth mindset. B) fixed mindset. C) performance mindset. D) none of these.
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b
answer

Otis is controlling and he can sometimes be mean. He says, \”This is me; take it or leave it. I’m not able to change.\” According to Carol Dweck, Otis A) has an antisocial personality disorder. B) has a fixed mindset. C) is expressing learned helplessness. D) is not sufficiently motivated to change.
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d
answer

Which of the following statements about self-efficacy is TRUE? A) Self-efficacy has much in common with mastery motivation. B) Self-efficacy influences a student’s choice of activities. C) High self-efficacy adolescents had higher academic aspirations. D) All of these are true.
question

a?
answer

Miranda’s grandfather is an avid photographer, and he wants to spend time teaching Miranda how to take better pictures. Miranda, on the other hand, is perfectly content to take pictures with her cell phone and does not even bother learning how to use a camera. She tries to act interested to please her grandfather, but research indicates that Miranda A) probably won’t learn to take better pictures because she doesn’t place a high value on that goal. B) probably will improve somewhat but not as much as her grandfather would like. C) will get caught up in her grandfather’s enthusiasm and become a fairly good photographer herself. D) will do none of these.
question

c
answer

Mr. Hegy plans his lessons to provide a framework for student learning, and he has positive expectations for all of his students. According to research, Mr. Hegy’s students are likely to be A) happy. B) organized. C) motivated. D) empathetic.
question

a?
answer

Farrah is a B-/C+ student in math. She tells her father that she wants to get an A in math from now on. Knowing how much his daughter struggles in math, her father says, \”I’m glad that you want to work on your math grades. Let’s aim for a B or B+ next term and we’ll build on that. I’ll help you make a plan.\” Researchers would say that A) this is a good idea; Farrah may get discouraged if she sets expectations that are unrealistic. B) Farrah’s father underestimates her and has probably just killed her motivation. C) Farrah doesn’t need a plan to reach her goal; determination is enough. D) Farrah will resent her father for suggesting that she work up to her goal with a plan.
question

b
answer

Which of the following statements regarding peers and their relationship to adolescent achievement is NOT true? A) Peers affect adolescents through social comparison. B) Popularity goals are linked to adolescent achievement. C) Peers affect academic and social goals. D) Adolescents motivated to engage in social dominance over their peers had a low achievement level.
question

a
answer

Which of the following statements regarding social comparison is TRUE? A) Adolescents are more likely to engage in social comparison than children. B) Children are more likely to engage in social comparison than adolescents. C) Adolescents are most likely to compare themselves to people who are different from them. D) Adolescents freely admit that they engage in social comparison.
question

a
answer

A group of teachers volunteers to stay with a volunteer group of students from their sophomore through their senior years as part of a pilot program designed to see if being with the same teacher for three years will benefit students. Research has shown that A) students who feel cared for are able to develop competencies. B) students will begin to be bored with the same teachers by the middle of their junior year. C) few students will volunteer to be with the same teachers for three years. D) students will want to stay with their foreign-language teachers more than any other teachers.
question

a
answer

Which of the following statements regarding socioeconomic status (SES) and ethnicity is NOT true? A) In most cases, deficits and differences are the same thing. B) Students from lower-SES families often lack resources such as a computer. C) SES predicts achievement better than ethnicity. D) The diversity that exists between ethnic minority adolescents is evident in their achievement.
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b
answer

Researcher Sandra Graham found that middle-SES African American students A) have low achievement expectations. B) do not fit the stereotype of being unmotivated. C) attribute failure to bad luck. D) are characterized by all of these.
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c
answer

The math instruction of American and Asian students differs in all of the following ways EXCEPT A) Asian teachers spend more time teaching math than American teachers. B) Asian students spend more days in school than American students; they have more time to do math. C) American parents are more likely than Asian parents to attribute their children’s math achievement to lack of effort. D) Asian students are more likely to do math homework than American students.
question

d
answer

Mickey often feels overwhelmed by all of the assignments that he has to do. He admits to being a perfectionist and wants to do each assignment well. Research has shown that Mickey may A) be at risk for depression. B) be at risk for substance abuse. C) have only average grades. D) procrastinate.
question

d
answer

Which of the following statements about anxiety is TRUE? A) Anxiety is a specific, focused feeling of fear. B) Many successful students have extremely high levels of anxiety. C) Anxiety decreases across the school years. D) Moderate levels of anxiety can be found in many successful students.
question

a
answer

Strategies to protect self-worth and avoid failure include all of the following EXCEPT A) setting low goals and objectives. B) procrastination. C) nonperformance. D) self-handicapping.
question

c
answer

Which of the following is NOT a self-handicapping strategy? A) cramming for a test B) putting off a project until the last minute C) setting challenging but realistic goals D) surface learning
question

d
answer

About what percentage of tenth-graders today combine school and part-time work? A) 35 percent B) 45 percent C) 60 percent D) 90 percent
question

d
answer

Research has shown that spending large amounts of time in paid labor while in school A) is associated with developing a good work ethic. B) helps students to learn time management and social skills. C) exposes students to good adult mentors. D) does none of these.
question

a
answer

Which of the following statements regarding adolescents and part-time work is NOT true? A) Adolescents who spend 20 hours or more each week at work spend less time with their peers. B) Adolescents who work spend less time with their families. C) Adolescents who work long hours are more frequent users of alcohol and marijuana. D) Tenth-graders who worked more than 14 hours a week suffered a drop in grades.
question

d
answer

Which of the following statements regarding paid work and adolescents in other countries is TRUE? A) In many countries, boys often spend more time in paid work than girls. B) In many countries, girls often spend more time in unpaid work than boys. C) U.S. adolescents are more likely to participate in paid labor than are European adolescents. D) All of these are true.
question

d
answer

Elena, a college junior, has gradually been increasing her hours at her job. According to research, Elena may A) develop a sleep disorder due to anxiety. B) see a decrease in her grades. C) have fewer financial concerns than her friends. D) experience all of these.
question

a
answer

Which of the following statements regarding college students and work is TRUE? A) As the number of hours of work increases, so does the likelihood of dropping out of school. B) Most colleges try to reserve some sections of classes for working students to make scheduling easier for these students. C) Most colleges restrict the number of hours that students can work and still remain in good standing. D) All of these are true
question

b?
answer

Jared wants to be an auto mechanic and to someday own his own shop. Where is Jared most likely to receive his education in automotive technology? A) at a two year college B) at a vocational high school C) at a four-year institution D) on the job
question

d
answer

Which of the following statements about adolescents and career exploration is NOT true? A) Adolescents often approach career exploration and decision-making with considerable ambiguity, uncertainty, and stress. B) In many schools, students do not know what information to seek about careers. C) Many adolescents do not adequately explore careers on their own. D) On average, high school students spend about seven hours a year with their guidance counselors.
question

b
answer

A large-scale longitudinal study of more than 1000 students in the United States found all of the following EXCEPT A) clear vocational goals did not guarantee a smooth transition to adult work. B) higher-income minority students were more positive about school than were their less affluent peers. C) girls anticipated the same lifestyles as boys in terms of education and income. D) engaging activities were essential to building optimism and resilience.
question

c
answer

Career development is related to _____ in adolescents and emerging adults. A) high stress levels B) high levels of anxiety C) identity development D) self-esteem
question

c
answer

Which of the following statements regarding career decidedness and planning is NOT true? A) Career decidedness and planning are positively related to identity achievement. B) Career decidedness and planning are negatively related to identity diffusion. C) Career decidedness and planning are positively related to identity moratorium. D) Career decidedness and planning are related to identity development.
question

b
answer

A student who has not yet made a commitment to a career but is still exploring options is in A) identity diffusion. B) identity moratorium. C) identity foreclosure. D) identity achievement.
question

a
answer

Mrs. Sands is a school counselor. When interviewed about what she likes LEAST about her job, research has shown that she is most likely to say, A) \”I have too many students to advise and not enough time in my day.\” B) \”School psychologists should be doing this job; I need to focus on students with mental health issues.\” C) \”Kids today don’t want my help; I have too much ‘down time’.\” D) \”My job is becoming obsolete; most school districts are contracting out to neighborhood career centers to help students choose their careers\”

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