Ch. 1 Psychology Test

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Wilhelm Wundt
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Structuralism: In 1879, In Germany, Wilhelm Wundt started his laboratory of psychology. Study the human behavior in a systematic and scientific manner. Est. Modern Psychology as a separate formal field of study. Interested in the human mind. He was a structuralist— that he was interested in the basic elements of human experience. Self-observation or introspection to collect information about the mind.Although he was trained in physiology- Wundt’s real interest was in the study of the human mind. Wundt tried to map out the basic structure of thought processes. Wundt’s experiments were very import historically because he used a systematic procedure to study human behavior.
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Sigmund Freud
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• Psychoanalytic psychology: Sigmund Freud was a physician that was more interested in the unconscious mind. • Believed that our conscious experiences are the only tips of the iceberg that beneath the surfaces are primitive biological urges that are in conflict with the requirements of society and morality. – These unconscious motivations and conflicts are responsible for most human behavior. – He used a new method for indirectly study unconscious processes-> Free Association (a patient says everything that came to mind-no matter how absurd or irrelevant it seems) • Freud’s role that of psychoanalysts, was to be objective; he merely sat and listened and then interpreted the associations – Free association revealed that operation of unconscious process – He also believed that dreams are expressions of the most primitive unconscious urges – He used records or case studies to develop and illustrate a comprehensive theory of personality.
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John B. Watson
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• Ideal of behaviorists was formulated by john B. Watson • He believed that all behavior, even apparently instinctive behavior, is the result of conditioning and occurs because the appropriate stimulus is present in the environment. He was a psychologist who stressed investigating observable behavior became known as behaviorists. John B. Watson believed that psychology should only concern itself with the observable facts of behavior. Watson further maintained all behavior, even apparently instinctive behavior, Is the result of conditioning and occurs because the appropriate stimulus is present in the environment.
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B.F. Skinner
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B.F Skinner introduced the concept of reinforcement. Skinner attempted to show how his laboratory techniques might be applied to society as a whole. In his class Walden Two (1948), he portrayed his idea of Utopia a small town in which conditioning, through rewarding those who display behavior that is considered desirable, rules every conceivable fact of life.
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Sir Francis Galton
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• Inheritable Traits: Sir Francis Galton, mathematician and scientist, who wanted to understand how heredity influences a person’s abilities, character, and behavior. • Genius or eminences is a hereditary trait. – The data he used were based on his study of biographies. – He invented procedures for directly testing the abilities and characteristics of a wide range of people. • These were tests were the primitive ancestors of the modern personality tests and intelligences test. • Galton’s writings raised the issue of whether behavior is determined by heredity or environment -> controversy today • Gestalt psychology: A group of psychologists; Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kolher, and Kurt Koffa disagreed with the principles of structuralism and behaviorism. – Involved a “whole pattern” – They study how sensations are assembled into perceptual experiences. – It became the forerunner for cognitive approaches of the study of psychology.
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Ivan Pavlov
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• Behavioral Psychology: Ivan Pavlov developed another new psychological investigations • He used a tuning fork each time he have a dog some meat powder. The dog would eventually salivate when it heard the tuning fork. It teaches the dog condition reflex. • The concept was used by psychologists as a new tool, as a means of exploring the development of behavior. – Behavior as a product of prior experiences -> Learned
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7. Jean Piaget
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Cognitivists focus on how we process, store, retrieve, and use information and how this information influences our thinking, language, problem solving, and creativity. They believe that behavior is more than a simple response to a stimulus. Behavior is an influenced by a variety of mental processes, including perceptions, memories, and expectations. • Cognitive Psychology: Jean Piaget, Noam Chomsky, and Leon Festingers – Cognitivists focus on how we process, store, retrieve, and use information and how this information influences our thinking, language, problem solving, and creativity. • Believe behavior is more than a response to a simple stimulus – Influenced by mental processes, including perceptions, memories, and expectations. • Biological Psychology: today it is referred as a behavioral neurosciences, emphasizes the impact of biology on behavior. – Psychobiologists study how the brain, the nervous system, hormones, and genetics influence our behavior. – They have found that genetic factors influence a wide range of human behavior. • Sociocultural psychology: this is the newest approach which they study the influence of cultural and ethnic similarities and differences on behavior and social functioning. – They consider how our knowledge and ways of thinking, feelings, and behaving and dependent on the culture to which we belong.
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8. William James
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• Functionalism: William James, often called the “father of Psychology” in the United States • Believed that all thinking, feeling, learning, and remembering- all activities of the mind which serve as one major function: to help us survive as species. • He focused on the functions or actions of the conscious mind and the goals or purposed of behaviors. – Functionalism is how animals and people adapt to their environments. (It took him 12 years to write the first textbook of psychology, the principles of Psychology.)
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Abraham Maslow
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• Humanistic psychology: it was developed as a reaction to behavioral psychology. • Abraham Maslow, Carol Rogers and Rolla May describe human nature as evolving and self-directed. – It does not view humans as being controlled by events in environment or by unconscious forces – The environment and other outside forces simply serve as a background to our own internal growth. – Each person is unique and has a self-concept and potential to develop fully.
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Four Goals of Psychology
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Description- The first goal for any scientist or psychologist is to describe or gather information about the behavior being studied and to present what is known. For example, we described Steve’s behavior at college. (refer to pg. 7) Explanation- Psychologists are not content simply to state the facts. Rather they seek to explain why people or animals behave as they do. Such explanations can be called psychological principles- generally valid ideas about behavior. Psychologists propose these explanations as hypotheses. Theories change as new data improves our understanding, and a good theory becomes the source of additional ideas for experiments. A number of theories taken together may validate or cause us to alter the principles that help explain and predict observed behavior. Prediction- The third goal of psychologists is to predict, as a result of accumulated knowledge, what organisms will do and, in the case of humans, what they will think or feel in various situations. By studying descriptive and theoretical accounts of past behaviors, psychologists can predict future behaviors. Influence- Some psychologists seek to influence behavior in helpful ways. These psychologists are conducting studies with a long-term goal of finding out more about human or animal behavior. They are doing basic science, or research. Other psychologists are more interested in discovering ways to use what we already know about people to benefit others. They view psychology as an applied science are using psychological principles to solve more immediate problems. Psychologists who study the ability of infants to perceive visual patterns are doing basic research. They may not be concerned with the implication their findings might have on the design of the crib. Psychologists studying rapid eye movement in a sleep research are also involved in basic science. If they discover that one individual has a sleep disturbance, they will try to understand and explain the situation, but they may not try to correct it.
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Psychology
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Is the scientific study of behavior that is tested through scientific research.
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Basic Science
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The pursuit of knowledge about natural phenomena for its own sake.
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Applied Science
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Discovering ways to use scientific findings to accomplish practical goals.
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Dualism
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Dualism is the view that mind and body function separately, without interchange.
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Introspection
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A method of self-observation in which participants report their thoughts and feelings.
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Cognitive
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Having to do with an organism’s thinking and understanding.
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Physiological
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Having to do with an organism’s physical processes.
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Hypothesis
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An assumption or prediction about behavior that is tested through scientific research.
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Scientific Method
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A general approach to gathering information and answering questions so that errors and biases are minimized.
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Theory
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A set of assumptions or prediction used to explain phenomena and offered for scientific study.
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Structuralism
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Basic elements of human experience. Basic elements that make up conscious mental experiences.
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Functionalism
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Study how animals and people adapt to their environments.
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Clinical Psychology
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A clinical psychologist diagnoses and treats people with emotional disturbances. As the field of psychology expanded, it divided into a number of subfields. Clinical and counseling psychology are the most popular. Clinical: help people deal with their personal problems. Private offices, mental hospitals, prisons, clinics. Used personality tests to determine whether a person needs treatment, and if so, what kind. Clinical psychology, and education help young people with emotional learning problems.
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Development Psychology
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• Developmental psychology: study physical, emotional, cognitive, and social changes that occur throughout life. – Study children, like elderly, and even the process of dying.
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Educational Psychology
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• Educational psychologists: deal with topics related to teaching children and young adults, such as intelligence, memory, problem solving, and motivation. – Evaluate teaching methods, devise tests, and develop new instructional devices.
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Counseling Psychology
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A psychologist who usually helps people deal with problems of everyday life. Counseling: usually work In their own office, in schools, or industrial firms, advising and assisting people with the problems of everyday life. – Help people adjust to challenges. – Need a doctorate – Some psychologists, educated in the principles of human development. • Usually involved in basic rather than applied science. – Social Psychologists study groups and how they influences individual behavior. – Conduct polls or survey.
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Sociocultural Psychology
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• Sociocultural psychology: this is the newest approach which they study the influence of cultural and ethnic similarities and differences on behavior and social functioning. – They consider how our knowledge and ways of thinking, feelings, and behaving and dependent on the culture to which we belong.
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Community Psychology
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• Community psychologists: may work in a mental health or social welfare agency operated by the state or local government or by a private organization. – May help design, run or evaluate a mental health clinic.
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School Psychologists
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• Educational psychologists: deal with topics related to teaching children and young adults, such as intelligence, memory, problem solving, and motivation. – Evaluate teaching methods, devise tests, and develop new instructional devices.
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Experimental Psychology
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Experimental psychologists: perform research to understand how humans and animals operate physically and psychologically. – Do everything from testing how electrical stimulations of a certain area of rat’s brain affects its behavior through studying how disturbed people think, to observing how different socioeconomic groups vote in election. • The American Psychological Association is a scientific in the US and is the world’s largest association of psychologists. It works to advance the science and profession of psychology and to promote human welfare.
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Forensic Psychologists
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• Forensic psychologist: work in legal, court, and correctional systems. – Assist police by developing personality profiles of criminals or help law enforcement understand problems like abuse.
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Organizational Psychologists
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• Industrial/Organizational psychologists: are employed by business firms and government agencies. – Industrial psychologists study and develop method to boost production, improve working conditions, and places applicants in jobs for which they are best suited, train people, and reduce accidents. • Organizational psychologists study the behavior of people in organizations such as business firms.

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