CGS Chapter 5

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What are the 2 primary types of programs that system software consists of?
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operating system and utility programs
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(DEF.) A group of programs that controls how your computer functions.
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operating system (OS)
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What system manages the computer’s hardware, provides a consistent means for application software to work with the CPU, and is responsible for the management, scheduling, and coordination of tasks?
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operating system
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(DEF.) The desktop, icons, and menus that let you communicate with your computer; how you interact with your OS.
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user interface
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(DEF.) A small program that performs many of the general housekeeping tasks for your computer, such as system maintenance and file compression.
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utility program
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(DEF.) Also referred to as embedded systems; require minimal user interaction; a program with a specific purpose, and it must guarantee certain response times for particular computing tasks.
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real-time operating system (RTOS)
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(DEF.) System that lets more than one user access the computer system at a time by handling and prioritizing requests from multiple users.
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multiuser operating system (or network operating system)
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(DEF.) A multiuser, multitasking OS that is used as a network OS, although it can also be found on PCs.
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UNIX
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In 1984, this OS became the first commercially available OS to incorporate a graphical user interface (GUI) with user-friendly point-and-click technology.
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Mac OS
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(DEF.) An open source OS designed for personal computers and as a network.
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Linux
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(DEF.) The various packages in which Linux is available for download.
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distributions or distros
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(DEF.) The combination of an OS and a specific processor.
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platform
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What does the OS provide that lets you interact with the computer?
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a user interface
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(DEF.) Interface in which you enter commands to communicate with the computer system.
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command-driven interface
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(DEF.) Interface in which you choose commands from menus displayed on the screen.
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menu-driven interface
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(DEF.) Interface that displays graphics and use the point-and-click technology of the mouse and cursor; very user-friendly.
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graphical user interface (GUI)
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(DEF.) A unique signal that tells the OS that a certain device is in need of immediate attention.
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interrupt
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(DEF.) A special numerical code that prioritizes the requests.
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interrupt handler
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(DEF.) When the OS processes the task assigned a higher priority before processing a task assigned a lower priority.
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preemptive multitasking
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(DEF.) A program that helps coordinate all print jobs currently being sent to the printer.
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spooler
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What does the OS use as a temporary storage area for instructions and data?
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RAM
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(DEF.) The process of optimizing RAM storage by borrowing hard drive space.
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virtual memory
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(DEF.) The temporary storage area on the hard drive that the OS stores RAM data and instructions that haven’t recently been used.
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swap file (or page file)
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(DEF.) The process of the OS swapping data and information to and from the swap file and RAM.
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paging
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(DEF.) The condition of excessive paging.
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thrashing
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(DEF.) Driver that facilitates communication between the device and the OS.
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device driver
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(DEF.) A software and hardware standard designed to facilitate the installation of new hardware in PCs by including in the OS the drivers these devices need in order to run.
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Plug and Play (PnP)
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(DEF.) Software design to make it seem as if there is something wrong with your computer; used by scammers.
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scareware
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(DEF.) Blocks of code that application software needs in order to interact with the CPU.
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application programming interface (API)
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What are the 4 basic steps of the boot process?
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1. Activating BIOS 2. Performing the Power-On Self-Test 3. Loading the OS 4. Checking Further
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(DEF.) A program that manages the exchange of data between the OS and all the input and output devices attached to the system; responsible for loading the OS into RAM from its permanent location on the hard drive.
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basic input/output system (BIOS)
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(DEF.) The first job that BIOS performs; process that ensures that essential peripheral devices are attached and operational
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power-on self-test (POST)
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(DEF.) A special kind of memory that uses almost no power; contains information about the system’s memory, types of disk drives, and other essential input and output hardware components.
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CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor)
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(DEF.) The main files of the OS.
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system files
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(DEF.) The essential component of the OS; responsible for managing the processor and all other components of the computer system.
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kernel (or supervisor program)
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(DEF.) Contains all the different configurations used by the OS and by other applications.
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registry
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(DEF.) The verification of your login name and password.
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authentication
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(DEF.) A new utility program in Windows 8 that attempts to diagnose and fix errors in your Windows system files that are causing your computer to behave improperly.
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Refresh your PC
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Which is NOT an example of a network operating system? -Linux -Android -Windows -UNIX
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Android
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You are most likely to find an RTOS -on an iPad. -on a mainframe. -on a supercomputer. -in a robotic camera.
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in a robotic camera.
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Which of the following is an example of a web-based OS? -Chrome -Linux -Windows -OS X
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Chrome
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Early operating systems such as MS-DOS used a _____________ interface. -menu-driven -graphical user -command driven -magnetic tape-based
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command-driven
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The OS can optimize RAM storage by using -thrashing. -virtual memory. -an interrupt handler. -a spooler.
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virtual memory.
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(DEF.) The first interaction you have with the OS and the first image you see on your display.
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Start screen
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(DEF.) Applications specifically designed to run in the interface of Windows 8.
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Windows 8 apps
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(DEF.) Features large type with clean, readable block images inspired by metropolitan service signs.
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Windows 8 interface
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(DEF.) Bars that float on the screen above the app when you summon them or you need them; Windows 8 feature.
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app bars
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(DEF.) Special shortcuts on Windows 8 that are used for performing common tasks.
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charms
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(DEF.) The process of choosing which applications are visible on the Start screen.
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pinning
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(DEF.) Feature that displays open and favorite applications for easy access.
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taskbar
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(DEF.) The most recently or commonly used files or commands for that application.
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Jump List
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(DEF.) Provides an organizational structure to your computer’s contents.
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file management
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(DEF.) The C drive is the top of the filing structure and referred to as this.
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root directory
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(DEF.) In an OS, a collection of program instructions or data that is stored and treated as a single unit
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file
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(DEF.) A collection of files.
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folder
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(DEF.) In Windows, it gathers categories of files from different locations and displays them as if they were all saved in a single folder, regardless of where they are physically stored.
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library
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(DEF.) The main tool for finding, viewing, and managing the contents of your computer.
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File Explorer
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What are the 4 default libraries in Windows?
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Documents, Music, Pictures, and Videos
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What are the 2 panes or sections that File Explorer is divided into?
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The navigation pane and the details pane.
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(DEF.) View in which files and folders are displayed in list form, and the additional file information is displayed in columns alongside the name of the file; the most interactive view.
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Details view
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(DEF.) View that shows contents of folders as small images.
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Large icons view
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(DEF.) The name you assign to a file when you save it.
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file name
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(DEF.) Follows the file name and a period or dot.
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extension (or file type)
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(DEF.) You can determine the location of a file by this.
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file path
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(DEF.) The backslash characters (in Windows) and colons (OS X).
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path separators
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(DEF.) The main component of system software.
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OS
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(DEF.) Small applications that perform special functions on the computer.
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utility programs
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(DEF.) In Windows; takes out redundancies in a file to reduce the file size.
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file compression utility
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(DEF.) A Windows utility that removes unnecessary files from your hard drive.
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Disk Cleanup
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(DEF.) A Windows utility that checks for lost files and fragments as well as physical errors on your hard drive.
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error-checking
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(DEF.) An index of all sector numbers in a table.
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file allocation table (FAT)
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(DEF.) If a program has stopped working, you can use this Windows utility to check on the program or to exit the nonresponsive program.
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Task Manager
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(DEF.) A Windows utility that lets you roll your system settings back to a specific date when everything was working properly.
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System Restore
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(DEF.) A snapshot of your entire system’s settings; generated prior to certain events or automatically once a week.
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system restore point.
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(DEF.) Grouping together related pieces of files on the hard drive, allowing the OS to work more efficiently.
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disk defragmenting
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(DEF.) Windows utility that will automatically create a duplicate of your libraries, desktop, contacts, and favorites and copy it to another storage device, such as an external hard drive.
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File History
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(DEF.) Centralized location for assistive technology and tools to adjust accessibility settings; Microsoft Windows utility.
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Ease of Access Center
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Which of the following is NOT considered to be a utility program? -Task Manager -Disk Cleanup -System Restore -Internet Explorer
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Internet Explorer
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The process of adding a Windows 8 app to the Start screen is known as -screening. -clipping. -visualizing. -pinning.
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pinning
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The Windows app used for locating files and folders is -Finder. -Disk Manager. -Library Explorer. -File Explorer.
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File Explorer.
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Which of the following is NOT a common file name extension? -.pptx -.zipped -.docx -.jpg
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.zipped
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The _________ utility can free up space on the hard drive. -Task Manager -File Explorer -System Refresh -Disk Cleanup
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Disk Cleanup
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Which of the following is an OS that is NOT used on tablet computers? -Android -Windows -iOS -Blackberry
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Blackberry
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Borrowing hard drive space to optimize RAM storage is known as -multitasking. -virtual memory. -authentication -paging
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virtual memory
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An example of an open source OS is -DOS. -Windows. -OS X. -Linux.
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Linux.
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Which of the following is NOT considered an accessibility utility? -Magnifier -Narrator -Speech Recognition -System Restore
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System Restore
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Apps specifically designed for Windows 8.1 -can’t be closed down once started. -run on the desktop. -use a large amount of RAM. -run full screen.
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run full screen.
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The Windows app used for file management is -Task Manager. -Disk Manager. -Library Explorer. -File Explorer.
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File Explorer.
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(T/F) Different versions of Linux are known as “distros.”
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True
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(T/F) The third step of the boot process is the power-on self-test (POST).
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False
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(T/F) System restore points can only be created by Windows automatically on a regular schedule.
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False
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(T/F) The Windows 8 desktop no longer includes the taskbar.
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False

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