Business Ethics: Normative Theories Unit 3

question

Ethical Absolutism
answer

The position that moral right and wrong are objective matters, not personal subjective matters, which can be determined through the application of reason
question

Ethical Absolutism
answer

The position that there are eternal, universally applicable moral principles.
question

Ethical Relativism
answer

The position that there are no universally applicable moral principles, only moral principles based on a particular culture, social group, and time. The right or wrong decision depends on whatever the dominant culture approves of
question

What is the approach of the authors of the course textbook to the poles of absolutism and relativism in ethics? What is this approach called?
answer

Pluralism
question

Pluralism
answer

occupies something of a middle ground between absolutism and relativism.
question

Consequentialist theories
answer

Ethical egoism Utilitarianism: (a) Act and (b) Rule Utilitarianism
question

Non-consequentialist theories
answer

Ethics of duty Ethics of rights and justice Virtue ethics Feminist ethics Postmodernist ethics
question

Non-consequentialist ethical theories
answer

set the principles for what is right and wrong behaviour based on matters other than the consequences of the behaviour will have on people or the environment
question

Consequentialist ethical theories
answer

set the principles for what is right or wrong behaviour based on what the consequences of the behaviour will be to people and the environment
question

Ethical Egoism
answer

is the principle that the morally right behaviour is that which best serves your own short term desires or long-term interests. No one else’s interests need be considered. In other words, maximize my own good.
question

Utilitarianism
answer

an action is morally right if it results in the greatest amount of good for the greatest amount of people affected by the action.
question

Act Utilitarianism
answer

The morally right behaviour is that which produces (1) the greatest balance of pleasure over pain (2) for the greatest number of people who will be affected by the behaviour
question

Act utilitarianism is known
answer

as a teleological theory because it is ends directed or goals directed (namely, maximizing pleasure over pain), not concerned with the actor’s motives or principles behind the behaviour
question

Act utilitarianism Advantages
answer

The theory appeals to our intuition that human beings are of value and matter. Conforms to our intuition that consequences matter
question

Rule Utilitarianism
answer

The morally right behaviour is that which complies with a moral rule, if and only if, that type of behaviour, if made into a rule, would as a whole bring about the greatest balance of pleasure over pain on a recurring basis.
question

Based on the facts which option will best serve my short-term desires and long-term interests
answer

ethical egoism
question

Which option will produce the greatest amount of pleasure over pain
answer

act utilitarianism
question

Which option will produce a general rule that maximizes pleasure over pain in all situations
answer

rule utilitarianism
question

Character of “Natural Rights”
answer

A right is a non-negotiable claim to something that no one may interfere with . A natural right is an inalienable right that is endowed on a human being by nature and not by humans
question

Inalienable
answer

the ownership of the right cannot be transferred from one individual to another by agreement or otherwise
question

Ethics of Rights
answer

Natural rights cannot be surrendered or infringed upon by any person’s behaviour or they have behaved immorally
question

Ethics of Rights Advantages
answer

1. Promotes the inherent value of individual human beings and that we are all equal and need to be respected as such. 2. Provides a strong moral justification for a person’s behaviour in the fact they are exercising their basic human rights
question

Ethics of Rights Disadvantages
answer

1. Because it promotes morality from the point of view of the individual it does not address the collective good of a society 2. What rights are included and not included as natural rights is unclear
question

Ethics of Justice
answer

A problem with moral rights as the basis for an ethical theory is that it operates on the assumption that all individuals’ moral rights will be equally respected and protected.
question

Distributive Justice:
answer

The fair distribution of society’s benefits and burdens. The principle is that it is morally wrong for an unequal distribution.
question

Rawls said justice is achieved when
answer

1. Each person has an equal right to both positive and negative liberties AND 2. Social and economic inequalities are arranged so that a. the one who benefits least is still better off than they would otherwise be b. everyone had a fair chance to higher positions
question

Negative Liberties:
answer

The absence of interference with your actions by other people. Examples include freedom of speech, freedom of religion and conscience, freedom to own personal property, freedom from intrusion into one’s privacy.
question

Positive Liberties:
answer

In a positive sense one has liberty to the extent one has control over ones life. Examples of positive liberties would be access to education, access to free health care, freedom from deception or force.
question

Principle 1
answer

is the principle of equal liberty and says (a) individual civil liberties must be protected against invasion by others and (b) must have liberties equal to others
question

Principle 2a
answer

is the difference principle and provides that must improve the most needy in society unless such improvement would be so burdensome as to hurt even the most needy
question

Principle 2b
answer

is called the principle of equal opportunity and provides all must be given equal opportunity to qualify for more privileged positions in society’s institutions.
question

Ethics of Justice Advantages
answer

1. Promotes the inherent value of individual human beings and that we are all equal and need to be given the same opportunities to succeed. 2. Fits with people’s intuition about morality and fairness, in theory at least.
question

Ethics of Justice disAdvantages
answer

1. Assumes it is more unfair to leave people in need than to take away private property (e.g., through taxation) 2. Assumes people are in need through no fault of their own 3. Because it promotes morality from the point of view of the individual it does not address the collective good of a society beyond assuming society benefits from re-distribution of wealth
question

virtue ethics
answer

the morally correct behaviour is that which the virtuous person would do in that same situation
question

How do you know what the virtuous person would do?
answer

By training yourself to be virtuous through developing certain habitual character traits
question

What are the traits of the character of the virtuous person that you must develop in business thru practice?
answer

Courage Justice or fairness Moderation Honesty Charity Giving back to the community Loyalty
question

Virtue Ethics Advantages
answer

1. Provides a natural and attractive account of human beings’ moral motivations. 2. Allows for emotions to be considered in our behaviour. 3. Gets away from analyzing isolated behaviour
question

Virtue Ethics disAdvantages
answer

No two cultures would exactly agree on what the virtues should be.
question

What is feminism?
answer

Is an approach that prioritizes empathy, harmonious and healthy social relationships, care for one another, and avoidance of harm above abstract principles.
question

Feminist ethics places a high priority on
answer

Maintaining social relationships. Caring for your family and friends. Avoiding harm to others
question

What is postmodernism?
answer

is an approach that locates morality beyond the sphere of rationality in an emotional “moral impulse” towards others. it encourages individual actors to questions everyday practices and rules, and to listen to and follow their emotions, inner convictions, and “gut feelings” about what they think is right and wrong in a particular situation.
question

Modernism
answer

1. The power of reason to solve problems. 2. There is an objective truth that can arrive at through reason. 3. Belief in universal principles and rules.
question

Postmodernism rejected the following. Why does this matter in business ethics?
answer

1. Power of reason 2. Objective truth 3. The achievement of universality
question

key concept in postmodernism.
answer

Deconstruction
question

Key concepts of postmodernist ethics
answer

Challenges the link between reason and morality. Asserts there are no universal principles in ethics. Real source of morals is rooted in a moral impulse towards others.
question

To decide what is right and wrong behaviour, postmodernist ethics suggests individuals should follow:
answer

Their emotions Their inner convictions Their gut feelings
question

Problems with Postmodernist Ethics
answer

Provides no clear principles or guidelines for figuring out what is ethical or unethical behaviour. Seems to be awfully close to the relativism end of the ethical spectrum.
question

Long-term self-interest
answer

Egoism
question

Social consequences of action
answer

Utilitarianism
question

Moral duties owed to others
answer

Duty Ethics
question

Entitlement of others
answer

Rights Ethics
question

Fair Treatment of everyone
answer

Justice Ehtics
question

Moral Character
answer

Virtue Ethics
question

Care for others and relationships
answer

Feminist Ethics
question

Moral impulse and emotions
answer

Postmodern ethics

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member