Bus. Communication CH 4:

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You attitude:
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-audience centered -write & speak in terms of the audience’s interests, needs, & preferences -shows respect for & interest in the audience -more than just using the word “you” -keep positive emphasis -maintain bias-free language -don’t use your attitude when it places blame/sounds authorities
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Establishing credibility:
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-honesty -objectivity -awareness -credentials -sincerity -build goodwill -build company income
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Honesty:
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demonstrating honesty & integrity will earn you the respect of your audiences, even if they don’t always agree with or welcome your messages
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Objectivity:
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show what you can distance yourself from emotional situations & look at all sides of an issues
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Awareness:
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directly/indirectly let your audience members know that you understand what’s important to them
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Credentials:
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audiences need to know that you have whatever it takes to back up your message
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Confidence:
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believe in yourself & your message
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Sincerity:
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when you offer praise, don’t use hyperbole, point out specific qualities that arrant praise
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Bias-free language:
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avoids words and phrases that unfairly and even unethically categorize or stigmatize people in ways related to gender, race, ethnicity, age, disability, or other personal characteristics
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Credibility:
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is a measure of your believability and is based on how reliable you are and how much trust you evoke in others
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Style:
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involves the choices you make to express yourself, the words you select, the manner in which you use those words in sentences, and the way you build paragraphs from individual sentences
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Tone:
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overall impression, in your message
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Conversational tone:
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used in most business communication, plain language that sounds businesslike without being stuffy at one extreme or too laid-back and informal at the other extreme
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Conversational tone:
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-don’t confuse texting & writing -avoid stale & obsolete language -avoid preaching & bragging -be careful with intimacy & humor
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Don’t confuse texting & writing:
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casual, acronym-filled language friends often use in text messaging, IM, & social networks is not considered professional business writing
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Avoid stale & obsolete language:
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most companies now shy away from such dated phrases as “attached please find” & “please be advised that”, avoid using obscure words, stale/clichĂ© expressions, & complicated sentences whose only intent is to impress others
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Avoid preaching & bragging:
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readers tend to get irritated by know-it-alls who like to preach or brag, if you need to remind your audience of something that should be obvious, try to work in the info causally, perhaps in the middle of a paragraph, where it will sound like a secondary comment rather than a major revelation
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Be careful with intimacy:
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business message should avoid this, such as sharing personal details or adopting a casual, unprofessional tone, when you have a close relationship with audience members
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Be careful with humor:
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can easily backfire & divert attention from your message, if you don’t know your audience well/you’re not skilled at using humor in a business setting, don’t use it at all
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Plain language:
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-presents information in a simple unadorned style that always the audience to easily grasp your meaning -information that your audience can read it, understand it,& take action
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Using the right voice:
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-passive -active
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Passive:
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-indirect -diplomatic -the subject receives the action
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Active:
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-direct -assertive -the subject performs the action & the objective receives the action
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Passive examples:
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-your report was read by the president -the profit & loss statement are prepared by the treasurer each month -it is suggested that you clean the element in warm, soapy water -it is desired that every effort be made to have this matter brought to the attention of the manager
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Active examples:
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-the president read your report -the treasurer prepares the profit & loss statement each month -clean the element in warm, soapy water -Mr. Smith wants you to bring this matter to the attention of the manager
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Choosing words:
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-concise -accurate -effective
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Choose strong & precise words:
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choose words that express your thoughts clearly, specifically, & strongly, if you find yourself using many objectives & adverbs, chances are you’re trying to compensate for weak nouns/verbs
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Choose familiar words:
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you’ll communicate best with words that are familiar to both you & your readers, trying to use unfamiliar words can lead to embarrassing mistakes
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Avoid clichés;
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terms and phrases so common that they have lost some of their power to communicate
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Avoid buzzwords:
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newly coined terms often associated with technology, business, or cultural changes, are more difficult to handle than clichés because in small doses & in the right situations they can be useful
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Use jargon carefully:
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specialized language of a particular profession or industry, has a bad reputation, but it’s not always bad, usually an efficient way to communicate within the specific groups that understand these terms
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Abstract words:
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expresses a concept, quality, or characteristic
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Concrete words:
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stands for something you can touch, see, or visualize
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Sentence types emphasis content through:
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-key words -word positions -sentence structure
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Sentence types:
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-simple -compound -complex -compound-complex
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Simple:
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has one main clause, although it may be expanded by nouns & pronouns serving as objects of the action by modifying phrases
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Compound:
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has two main clauses that express two/more independent by related thoughts of equal importance (and, but, or)
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Complex:
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expresses one main thought (independent clause) and one/or more subordinate thoughts (dependent clauses)
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Compound-complex:
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has two main clause, at least one of which contains a subordinate clause
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Organizational paragraph elements:
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-illustration/story -classification -cause/effect -problem solving -compare/contrast
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Cause-effect relationship:
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therefore, because, accordingly, thus, consequently, hence, as a result, so
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Comparison:
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similarly, here again, likewise, in comparison, still
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Contrast:
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yet, conversely, whereas nevertheless, on the other hand, however, but, nonetheless
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Illustration:
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for example, in particular, in this case, for instance
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Topic sentence:
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reveals the subject of the paragraph
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Support sentences:
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each sentence provides another piece of evidence to demonstrate the general truth of the main thought
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Transitions:
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connect ideas by showing how one thought is related to another
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Format with technology:
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-style sheets, sets, templates, & themes -boilerplate & document components -auto correction & auto completion -file merge & mail merge -endnotes, footnotes, tables of contents, & indexes
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Style sheets, sets, templates, & themes:
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tools also make it easy to redesign an entire document or screen simply by redefining the various styles or selecting a different design theme
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Boilerplate:
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refers to a standard block of text that is reused in multiple documents
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Auto-correction & auto-completion:
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some programs can automate text entry and correction using a feature called auto-completion, auto-correction, or something similar; Microsoft lets you build a library of actions that automatically fill in longer entries based on the first few characters you type
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File merge & mail merge:
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most word processing software makes it easy to combine files, which is an especially handy feature when several members of a team write different sections of report
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Endnotes, footnotes, indexes, & tables of contents:
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your computer can help you track footnotes and endnotes, renumbering them every time you add or delete references

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