BUAD309 Chapter 9

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Groups
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Two or more individuals interacting and interdependent who have come together to achieve particular objectives
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Formal Groups
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A designated work group defined by an organizations structure (work groups)
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Informal Groups
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Independently formed to meet the social needs of its members, not organizationally determined (greek life)
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What is true about groups?
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Groups influence our emotional reactions
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What is true about formal groups?
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They are marked by stipulated behaviors in pursuit of organizational goals
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What is an informal group characterized by?
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Fulfillment of the need for social contact
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What differentiates a formal group from an informal group?
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Formal groups involved clearly defined tasks and roles, while informal groups are neither formally structured nor organizationally determined
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Social Identity Theory
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Perspective that considered when and why individuals consider themselves members of groups
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Territory of the Social Identity Theory
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Our tendency to take personal pride or offense for the accomplishments of a group we are a part of
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What is true in regards to the social identity theory?
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It proposes that people have emotional reactions to the failure or success of their group because their self-esteem is tied into the groups performance
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In-group Favoritism
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The tendency to see members of the group which we are a part of as better than other people
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Similarity
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A characteristic under the social identity theory that manifests itself in the fact that people who have the same values or characteristics as other members of their organization have higher levels of group identification
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Distinctiveness
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Tendency of in-group members to notice and emphasize identities that reflect how different they are from other groups
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Status
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A characteristic under the social identity theory that reflects the tendency of people to link themselves to groups of higher social standing in attempt to define themselves favorably
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Uncertainty Reduction
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Dimension of the social identity theory that manifests itself in the tendency of people to use the group as a means of understanding who they are and how they fit in the world
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Stages of Group Development
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The 5 Stage Model
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Stage 1 of Group Development
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Forming Stage
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The Forming Stage
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Much uncertainty, \”test the waters\” to make group comfortable
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Project Team Charter
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Used to define purpose of the project, stakeholders, intended outcomes and team roles
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Stage 2 of Group Development
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Storming Stage
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The Storming Stage
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Characterized by intragroup conflict, conflict over who will control the group. Ends with a decision who will control the group Members accept the existence of the group but resist the constraints it imposes on
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By the end of what stage is a relatively clear hierarchy of leadership within the group established?
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Storming
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Stage 3 of Group Development
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Norming Stage
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The Norming Stage
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Characterized by close relationships The group demonstrates cohesiveness Common set of expectations
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Stage 4 of Group Development
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Performing Stage
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The Performing Stage
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The stage in which the group is fully functional The group energy is focused on the task at hand
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For permanent work groups which is the last stage in development?
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The performing stage
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Stage 5 of Group Development
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Adjourning Stage
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The Adjourning Stage
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The final stage for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance
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What may aid a group in reaching the performing stage more rapidly?
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A positive social focus
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The Punctuated-Equilibirum Model
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It characterizes groups as exhibiting long periods of inertia interspersed with brief revolutionary changes
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When does a transition take place during the punctuated-equilibrium model?
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Exactly when the group has used up half its allotted time – alway mark in the timeline – this transition initiates major changes
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What does the first phase of group development for temporary groups involve?
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The determination of the group’s direction
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First Meeting Phase
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The determination of the behavioral patterns and assumptions through which the group approaches the project
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What represents major determinants of group development and functioning as depicted by the punctuated-equilibrium model?
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Deadlines Time constraints
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Groups with ____ have a better chance of success?
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Complementary skills
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Roles
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A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit, required to play a number # of diverse roles
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Role Perception
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Our view of how we are supposed to act in a given situation
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Role Expectation
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The way others believe you should act in a given context
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Role Conflict
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When compliance with one role requirement may make it difficult to comply with another
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Norms
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The acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members
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How can norms be enforced?
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Through organizational controls or peer pressure
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What happens when norms are negative?
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Leads to deviant behavior
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Deviant Behavior
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Voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and in doing so, threatens the well-being of the organization or its members?
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What does widespread deviant workplace behavior depend on?
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The accepted norms of the group
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Performance Norms
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The manner in which a job must be done
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Social Arrangement Norms
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Dictate behavior such as with who group members eat lunch and friendships on and off the job
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Resource Allocation Norms
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Dictate assignment of difficult jobs and distribution of resources like pay or equipment
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Conformity
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The adjustment of ones behavior to align with the norms of the group
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Reference Groups
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The important groups which an individual belongs or hopes to belong to
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Groupthink
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Occurs when a group exerts extensive pressure on an individual to align his or her opinion with that of others. (The challenger example)
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Status
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The socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others
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What determines status?
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The power a person yields over others A persons ability to contribute to a groups goals An individuals personal characteristics
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What does NOT determine status?
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Ability to conform to group norms
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An effect of status on conformity pressure
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People in high-status jobs have especially negative reactions to social pressure exerted by people in love-status jobs
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High status individuals are often given _____ to deviate from norms than other members
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More Freedom
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High status people are better able to resist _____ ?
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Conformity Pressures
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Are smaller or larger groups better at problem solving?
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Larger groups
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Are smaller or larger groups better at task completion?
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Smaller groups
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Social Loafing
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The tendency of individuals to spend less effort when working in a group than when working individually
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What is a contributing factor with regard to social loafing?
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Dispersion of responsibility
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What is an effective mean of countering social loafing?
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Ensuring that individual contributions to the group’s outcome are identified
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Where is social loafing witnessed less?
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In collectivist cultures where people take pride in group performance
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Cohesiveness
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The degree to which members are attracted to each other and motivated to stay in the group
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When is there exception to cohesiveness?
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When groups have a negative attitude, it can be highly contagious in a cohesive team
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What happens when both cohesiveness and performance norms are high?
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Productivity will also be high
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Diversity
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The extent to which members of a group are similar to, or different from one another.
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What is an advantage of group decision making when compared to individual decision making?
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Increased diversity of views
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When are group decisions preferred to individual decisions?
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When acceptance of solution is of importance
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What area does group decision making have a disadvantage in compared to individual decision making?
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Speed
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Groupthink
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SeA phenomenon in which the norms for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action
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What can a manager do to reduce groupthink?
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Seek input from employees before the group leader presents his opinions
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Groupshift
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In discussing a given set of alternatives and arriving at a solution, group members tend to exaggerate the initial positions they hold.
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Where is group thinking most commonly seen?
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In the group decision making approach using interacting groups
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Brainstorming
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An idea-generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternative while withholding any criticism of those alternatives
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What can brainstorming overcome?
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The pressures for conformity
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Nominal Group Technique
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A group decision making method in which individual members meet face-to-face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion High in creativity and affordability, slow and low and only moderately cohesive
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Interacting Techniques
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High creativity, high cohesion and low expense
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Electronic Techniques
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Slow, expensive and have zero cohesion
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Fault Lines
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The perceived divisions that split groups into 2 or more subgroups based on individual differences such as sex, race, age, work experience and education

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