biology test chapter 10

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As a cell becomes larger, its
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volume increases faster than its surface area
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If the surface area of a cell that is shaped like a cube increases 100 times, the volume increases about how much?
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1,000 times
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The rate at which wastes are produced by a cell partially depends upon the cells …
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volume
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The problems that growth causes for cells, EXCEPT…
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excess oxygen.
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Problems that growth causes for cells is …
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more demands on DNA, obtaining enough food, expelling wastes
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Compared to small cells, large cells have more trouble…
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moving needed materials in and waste products out
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After cell division, each daughter cell has
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a higher surface area/volume ratio than the parent cell
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What happens when a cell divides
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Each daughter cell receives its own copy of the parent cell’s DNA
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The process by which a cell divides into 2 daughter cells is called…
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cell division
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What is one advantage of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction is that sexual reproduction does what
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provides genetic diversity
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What is an advantage of having a cell’s DNA bundled into separate chromosomes is …
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during cell division, each daughter cell will get the same number of genes
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List the structures from smallest to largest
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double helix, nucleosome, coil, supercoil, chromosome
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A multicellular organism begins life as a single cell, going to 2 cells, 4 cells, etc. What best describes what is happening in this process.
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Chromosomes are duplicated before cell division, so that each new daughter cells has a complete set.
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When, during the cell cycle, are the chromosomes visible
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Only during cell division
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During which phase in the cell cycle does mitosis happen?
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M phase
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What pair includes a phase of the cell cycle and a cellular process that occurs during that phase?
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G2 phase, preparation for mitosis
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When, during the cell cycle, is a cell’s DNA replicated?
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S phase
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What event occurs during interphase?
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Centrioles duplicate
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List a correct statement about the events of the cell cycle
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Interphase consists of the G1, @ and G2 phases
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During which phase of mitosis are structures like the centromere and sister chromatids visible?
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prophase, metaphase and anaphase
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Which is the first phase of mitosis
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Prophase
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During what phase of mitosis do the chromosomes line up along the middle of the dividing cell
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metaphase
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List the phases of mitosis in their proper sequence
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Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
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What is the role of the spindle fibers during mitosis
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They help separate the chromosomes
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List the two main stages of cell division
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mitosis and cytokinesis
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During normal mitotic cell division, a parent cell that has 4 chromosomes will produce 2 daughter cells containing how many chromosomes
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4
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List one difference between cell division in plant cells and in animal cells is that plant cells have what
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a cell plate
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Some cells form a cell plate during what stage?
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cytokinesis
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When cells are grown in a laboratory, what is a factor that can stop normal cells from dividing
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contact with other cells
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Cells grown in a petri dish tend to divide until they form a thin layer covering the bottom of the dish. If cells are removed from the middle of the dish, the cells bordering the open space will begin dividing until they have filled the empty space. What does this show?
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the controls on cell growth and division can be turned on and off
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Explain why normal cells grown in a petri dish tend to stop growing once they have covered the bottome of the dish.
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Contact with other cells stops cell growth
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In eukaryotic cells, the timing of the cell cycle is regulated by …
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cyclins
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Cyclins are a family of closely related proteins that…
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regulate the cell cycle
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What are external regulators of the cell cycle?
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growth factors
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Cancer is a disorder in which some cells have lost the ability to control their …
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growth rate
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Cancer cells form masses of cells called…
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tumors
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A cell with a defective p53 gene is likely to
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stop responding to growth regulators
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Cancer affects who/what?
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multicellular organisms only
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During early development, all cells in the embryo of a multicellular organism are identical. later these become specialized. What’s this called?
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differentiation
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Why are stem cells important?
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They have the potential to develop into other cell types
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What is a possible future benefit of stem cell research
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reversing damage from a heart attack
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T/F – as a cell’s size increases, the ratio of surface area to volume increases
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False
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T/F – the smaller a cell is, the more difficult it is for the cell to move enough nutrients and water across its cell membrane to maintain its normal function?
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False
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T/F – An imaginary cubical cell with a side length of 10mm would have a ratio of surface are to volume of 6:10
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True
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T/F – Mitosis is a form of sexual reproduction
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False
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T/F – Most of a cell’s growth takes place during the G2 phase of the cell cycle
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False
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T/F – In eukaryotes, the spindle breaks down during prophase and reforms during telophase
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False
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T/F – During cytokinesis, the cell undergoing cell division finally splits into 2 daughter cells
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True
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T/F – One difference between cyclins and growth factors is that each cell produces its own cyclins, but growth factors are signals that can be sent from one cell to another.
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False
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T/F – Cancer is a disorder in which some of the body’s cells lose the ability to control growth and division.
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True
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T/F – A single-celled organism would not be expected to undergo cell differentiation.
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True
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T/F – Stem cells taken from embryos are totipotent
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False
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T/F – People opposed to stem cell research argue that it is unethical to collect embryonic stem cells because it usually preserves an embryo
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False

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