Biology 1 Cell Test Study Guide

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Cell Theory
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1) All organisms are composed of one or cells 2) The Cell is the basic unit of structure and function in an organism 3)All cells come from pre-existing cells
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Theodor Schwann
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Helped develop \”The Cell Theory\” Also, \”all ANIMALS are made of cells\”
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Rudolf Virchow
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Helped develop \”The Cell Theory\” his theory-All cells arise from pre-existing cells by cell division
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Mathias Schleiden
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helped develop \”the cell theory\” All plants are made of cells
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Anton von Leeuwenhoek
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Helped develop \”the cell theory\” 1st to see LIVE CELLS under a microscope
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Endosymbiotic Theory
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Mitochondria and Chloroplasts were once free living prokaryotes that fused with another cell and set up symbiotic relationships! (relationships that benefit each other)
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Proof of Endosymbiotic Theory
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1) Double membrane structure 2) Prokaryotic DNA (their own genetic code) 3)Prokaryotic ribosome (produce protein) 4) CAN survive outside cell
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Structural Proteins
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Help give the cell support and shape
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Receptor Proteins
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Proteins embedded in membrane that receives chemical signals from the environment or other cells to trigger a response. (communicate with environment)
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Transport Proteins
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Transport molecules across cell membranes through FACILLITATED DIFFUSION
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Hydrophobic
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Tail of the lipids repelled by water
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Hydrophillic
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Polar head of lipids attrackted to water
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Nucleus
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\”Control Center\” Metabloism and Division(reproduction)
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Nucleolus
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Structure within Animal Cells that helps Production of RIBOSOMES in nucleus
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Lysosome
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Membrane enclosed sac of digestive enzymes SUCIDE SACS -digestion of food within cell
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Mitrochondria
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POWERHOUSE- Performs respiration /ENERGY to cell
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Chloroplast
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Food for Plant cells made here (photosynthesis) contains Chlorophyll
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Unique to Chloroplast and Mitchondria regarding DNA
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Originally they were smaller prokaryotic cells engulfed by larger prokaryotic cells. Proof is they have their own DNA (Endosymbiotic Theory- lives with larger cell to benefit each other) that they use to produce proteins and enzymes.
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Leucoplast
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In plant cells – STORAGE
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Endoplasmic Reticulum
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Transportation through cell (as well as surface for chemical reactions) Rough= ribosomes for protein, Smooth=lipids
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Golgi
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Packages and secretes products of the cell. (packages into vesicles for transportation)
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Ribosome
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Site of Protein Synthesis (where Protein is Made)
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Vacuole
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Fluid filled organelles enclosed by a membrane Contains stored food and wastes (plants large vacuole for water)
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Centriole
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Microtubule in Animal cells that AIDS IN CELL DIVISION
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Cell Wall
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Gives the cell its SHAPE and SUPPORT, NOT in animal cells
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Cilia
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Sort hairlike structures with the capacity for movement
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Flagella
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Longer but few hairlike structure used for movement
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Cytoplasm
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Jellylike/Watery material which contains many of the materials involved in cell metabolism
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Cytoskeleton
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Cell Shape, Strength and Movement in cell organelles. In Eukaryotic cells. Fills up the cytoplasm
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Chromosomes
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Rod-shaped bodies that carry Genetic Information
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Chromatin
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DNA Material located within the nucleus of a cell
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Stem Cells
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unique cells of the body in that they are unspecialized and have the ability to develop into several different types of cells.
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Cilia
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Hairlike Structures with the capacity for movement SHORT
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Flagella
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LONG hairlike structure used for movement
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Pseudopodia
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Cytoplasmic Extensions for feeding and movement (specialized cells in Kingdom Protista)
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Contractile Vacuole
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Used to combat Osmosis. A specialized vacuole of eukaryote cells, that fills with water from the cytoplasm and then discharges this externally by the opening of a permanent narrow neck.
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Features that allow Paramecium to move
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bodies are covered with Cilia that beat in 1 direction like oars spiraling through the water with an invisable axis
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Features that allow Amoeba to move
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by tenacle-like structures of psedupodia
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Features allow Euglena to move
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Flagellas long whip-like attachment to the side helps it propel through water
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Eyespot
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Helps detect sunlight needed for photosynthesis in the Euglena
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Cell Wall of Fungi
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made up of Chitin (cellulose)
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Cell Wall of Plants
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determines the shape of the cell. Much like the human skeleton
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Hyphae
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In fungi= Elongated , slender fungal cell
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Red Blood Cells
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formed in the bone marrow have a short lifespan of only 100 – 120 days, within which they perform the crucial role of transporting oxygen to various parts of the body.
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White Blood Cells
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Resist and fight infection!
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\”B\” Cells
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Mature in Bone Marrow Make antibodies Memory Cells
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\”T\” Cells
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Produced in Thymus
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Helper T
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Activate B cells
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Killer T
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Destroy Pathogens
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Immune Response
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Involves mainly \”T\” cells and leads to the destruction of cells that are infected with VIRUS!
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Macronucleus in Paramecium
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is the centre of all metabolic activities of the organism.
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Micronucleus in Paramecium
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is a storage site for the genetic material of the organism.
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Prokaryotic
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DNA Ribosome Unicellular
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Eukaryotic
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DNA Ribosome Nucleus Complex Organelles Unicellular or Multicellular
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Semi-permmeable Cell Membrane
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Because it allows some molecules to pass through while preventing others. **based on size and charge!!
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Structures of Cell Membrane
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Phospholipid Layer with embedded proteins hydrophillic hydrophobic Proteins used as receptors
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Hierarchy of Cell Organization
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Cells : Basic unit of life TO Tissues: Collection of cells TO Organs: Performs functions and helps tissues TO Organ System: Carry out important functions TO Organism: Highest level
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Cells communicate
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Receptor Proteins_ proteins embedded in membrane that receive chemical signals from the environment or other cells to trigger response. Hormones: chemical signals that can travel great distances to attach to receptor proteins
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Endocrine System
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series of glands that release chemicals/hormones into the bloodstream. Chemicals act as messengers to relay info>
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Immune System
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Defense against diseases and infection
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Pathogen
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Foreign substance, disease causing
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Antigen
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Protein on surface of cell
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Erythrocytes
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Red Blood Cells
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Leukocytes
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White Blood Cells Primary defenders of the immune system
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Phagocytes
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Cells that engulf pathogens
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Lymphocytes
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B cells and T cells
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Hooke
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Looked at dead cork coined term \”CELLS\” looked like cells in a monastery!
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Organelle
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Small structures within a cell that have specific function \”tiny organism\”
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Micronucleus
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Used for reproduction

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