Bio 1B MT2

Flashcard maker : Collin Foley
ascending moist air releases/absorbs moisture
releases
descending dry air releases/absorbs moisture
absorbs
__________ coined the term ecology
Haeckel
_________ is a pattern of ocean moving
gyre
________ ________ keeps East Coast and Europe warm
Gulf Stream
_________ ________ is cold water coming down from Alaska
California Current
_________ is a set of organisms that appears together
biome
___________ is the person we associate with biomes
von Humboldt
___________ was a Russian biogeographist who noticed biomes in Ecuador
von Humboldt
we characterize _________ _________ by vegetation and latitude
terrestrial biomes
_____________ is a plot of the annual mean temperature and precipitation in a particular region
climograph
we characterize _________ _________ by light and salinity
aquatic biomes
where light penetrates water is _________ zone
photic
where light no longer penetrates is _________ zone
aphotic
bottom of aquatic biome is _________ zone
benthic
deep in the aphotic zone is __________ zone
abyssal
photic and aphotic zones together make up _________ zone
pelagic
benthic zone is occupied by organisms called ____________
benthos
__________ is the dead organic matter that many organisms in the benthic zone use as food
dendritus
plankton most occurs in __________ zone
pelagic
seasonal turnover occurs in __________ lakes
temperate
___________ is stratification of the water in temperate lakes (more dense at the bottom, but changes with freezing)
thermocline
movements in the mantle cause plates to move over time in the process called __________ ________
continental drift
about 250M years ago supercontinent ________ formed
Panagaea
when extinction rate increases dramatically, it leads to ___________ extinction
mass
mammals underwent a major adaptive radiation after extinction of _________
dinosaurs
__________ in the area where one biome gradually changes into the adjacent
ecotone
_________ is an event such as storm or human activity that changes the community, removing organisms from it and altering availability
disturbance
________ make up the largest marine biome
oceans
________ lakes are nutrient-poor and oxygen-rich
oligotrophic
________ lakes are nutrient-rich
eutrophic
_________ measures represent the number of unique taxa within a sample
richness
EPT stands for
Ephemeroptera
Plecoptera
Trichoptera
____________ __________ is a measure that is representative of tolerance of organisms to pollution
biotic index
___________ organisms use their body or construct nets to filter particles of organic matter out of the stream water
filtering
__________ is the study of the process of fossilization
taphonomy
_______ zone is column of water above ocean floor
pelagic
eutrophic/oligotrophic lakes are richer in nutrients
eutrophic
_________ ecology focuses on the exchange of energy, organisms and materials between ecosystems
organismal
__________ zone would probably be absent in a very shallow lake
aphotic
__________ is a group of individuals of the same species living in the same general area
population
populations are often described by their boundaries: T/F
T
_________ of a population is the number of individuals per unit of area or volume
density
________ is the pattern of spacing among the individuals within the boundaries of a population
dispersion
What method is used to estimate the population size when individuals move too quickly?
mark-recapture
in ___________ pattern of dispersion individuals aggregate in patches
clumped
__________ pattern of dispersion is evenly spaced
uniform
__________ is the defense of a bounded physical space against encroachment by other individuals
territoriality
in __________ dispersion, position of each individual is independent of others
random
__________ is the study of vital statistics of populations and how they change over time
demography
sea stars clumped together where food is abundant = __________ dispersion
clumped
dandelions grows based on where seeds are dispersed = __________ dispersion
random
life _________ is an age-specific summary of survival pattern of a population
table
_________ is a group of individuals of the same age
cohort
__________ curve is a plot of proportion/numbers in a cohort alive at each age
survivorship
late mammals (such as humans) usually have type ___ survivorship curve
1
organisms that produce large numbers of offspring but provide no care exemplify type ___ survivorship curve
3
type ____ curve has a constant death rate over organism’s lifespan
2
_______ table is an age-specific table of fertility in a population
reproductive
___________ ________ is the maximum population size that a particular environment can sustain
carrying capacity
carrying capacity is denoted as _____
K
in ____________ population growth model per capita rate of increase approaches zero as the population nears carrying capacity
logistic
traits that affect an organism’s schedule of reproduction and survival make up its _________ ________
life history
___________ is one-time reproducer
semelparity
_________ is repeat reproducer
iteroparity
in _________ organisms tend to reproduce relatively few but large offspring
iteroparity
semelparity/iteroparity is favored in an unpredicted environment
semelparity
____ selection is density-dependent
K
___ selection is density-independent
R
____ selection operates in environments close to carrying capacity
K
___ selection operates in uncrowded environments
R
birth/death rate doesn’t change with population density = density _________
independent
death rate that increases with population density is density ___________
dependent
birth rate that falls with population density is density __________
dependent
population fluctuations from year to year or from place to place are called _________ _________
population dynamics
when a number of local populations is linked, it forms _________
metapopulation
_________ is the number of individuals per unit area; _______ is the pattern of spacing of individuals in the population
density
dispersion
graph that plots numbers of individuals who were alive at particular ages is called ________ _______
survivorship curve
antagonistic social interaction used to defend a bounded physical space is called _________
territoriality
temperature extremes is density dependent/independent factor limiting population growth
independent
what essential resource is likely to limit human carrying capacity?
water
________ is the movement of individuals out of a population
emigration
________ is influx of individuals from new areas
immigration
_______ model of population growth assumes there is maximum population size that the environment can support
logistic
________ describes an organism that reproduces once in its lifetime
semelparity
organisms living in a homogenous abiotic environment cooperate to avoid being eaten = _________ pattern of dispersion
clumped
the concept of ________ ________ summarizes aggregate land and water area required by each person to produce all resources he or she needs and absorb all waste he or she produces
ecological footprint
within a species organisms of different sizes consume different food – example of ________ _________
resource partitioning
can competition occur between different species?
yes
R0 is basic ___________ number
reproduction
__________ pressure refers to increased dispersal opportunity
propagule
____________ _________ is escape from predators in the context of invasion biology
ecological release
in ___________ survival and reproduction of both species is increased in the presence of the other
mutualism
___________ __________ is local elimination of inferior competitor
competitive exclusion
__________ competition occurs when individuals from different species compete for a resource that limits their growth and survival
interspecific
________ ________ is species that make up a community
community composition
_________ _______ is how community forms and assembles over time
community assembly
__________ ________ is 3D structure of communities as they develop
community structure
species start from nothing is __________ succession
primary
ecosystem restarting from a disturbance is _________ succession
secondary
community ________ is species that make up a community
species
glacial moraine (rubble) is an example of ________ succession
primary
________ _______ is change in composition over time
ecological transition
_________ community is a stable community that doesn’t change with time
climax
chaparral is/isn’t adapted to fire
is
dung beetles are an example of ________ succession
secondary
forensic science uses _________ succession
secondary
________ advises on network theory
Berlow
_________ species are organisms that you can see in the environment and represent a big proportion of what you observe
dominant
________ species have a big effect on the food web in proportion to their numbers
keystone
__________ _________ can change ecosystem landscape out of proportion to their numbers
ecosystem engineers
________ _______ transform the landscape itself
ecosystem engineers
only ~10% of energy from one level make it to the next is referred to as _________ ________
trophic efficiency
trophic efficiency is ~____ %
10
_______ is total solar energy captured at the top
GPP
______ is the energy available to consumers
NPP
NPP = ____ – respiration of autotrophs
GPP
_____ = total biomass accumulation
NEP
NEP = ______ – respiration of everything
GPP
_________ efficiency is basically trophic efficiency including envy we put into the system
ecologic
2 components to species diversity is ________ and _______
richness
evenness
ecological _________ are species with overlap in their resource use; perform similar functions in a community
guilds
niche __________ = as you add species, they complement each other by using resources differently
complementarity
____________ diversity = diversity at one place
alpha
______ diversity is between different places
beta
biodiversity __________ has a lot of biodiversity and a lot of species that are unique
hotspot
higher/lower extinction rate = smaller area
higher
________ is a measure of reflectance
albedo
NPP stands for?
net primary production
are nutrients as important for terrestrial NPP as temperature and precipitation?
no
__________: current drives warm water off coast and cold water rises and brings nutrients
upwelling
the process of _________ is responsible for the coast of CA being so productive
upwelling
__________ results in dead zones
eutrophication
________ is one of the main limiting nutrients in aquatic systems
nitrogen
___________ is from land back into the atmosphere
evapotranspiration
T/F: the effective size of a population is usually larger than the size one might measure by conducting a census of a population
F
relationship between community threshold and R0 is _________ association
positive
change in species composition over time is _________ _________
ecological succession
__________ is when one species early in ecological succession makes it harder for future species to colonize and establish
inhibition
group of species that coexist and interact within a defined area is called ________ _______
ecological community
total amount of primary producer biomass available for consumption by heterotrophs is ______
NPP (Net Primary Production)
trade winds and westerlies are/aren’t predictable
are
________ create currents
gyres
________ Current is along the California coast
California
California Current is cold/warm
cold
________ Stream goes from the Caribbean, along the East Coast and then to Europe
Gulf
________ Stream keeps East Coast and Europe warm
Gulf
__________ __________ Current goes all the way along Antarctic
Antarctic Circumpolar
there is less rain on the _________ side of the hill
leeward
30N is Tropic of _________
Cancer
30S is Tropic of _________
Capricorn
___________ occurs when the range of species or lineage is split apart
vicariance
intertidal regions are/aren’t productive
are
___________ zone is very deep in the Earth’s crust
abyssal
during what seasons does turnover occur?
fall
spring
__________ created the term biogeographic regions
Wallace
_________ is a parasite that causes disease
pathogen
+/+ interaction is ___________
mutualism
+/- interaction is __________
parasitism
+/0 interaction is _________
commensalism
____________ is an ecological relationship in which 2 species live in close contact with each other
symbiosis
__________ is per capita birth rate
fecundity
________ pathogens are transferred to humans from other animals by means of intermediate species called vector
zoonotic
zoonotic pathogens are transferred to humans by means of ____________
vectors
____________ growth model includes carrying capacity
logistic
__________ is the smallest possible size of a population that will make it on its own
MVP (Minimum Viable Population)
_______ effect = if one of subpopulations disappears, it can be rescues
rescue
habitat _________ = mechanisms for organisms to move (bridges, etc)
corridor
_________ population size is the number of individuals in a population that are actually reproducing
effective
___________ is the total mass of all organisms in a habitat
biomass
_________ is when minerals in rocks become available for life
leaching
nitrogen _________ converts atmospheric nitrogen into usable form
fixation
____________ creates atmospheric nitrogen
denitrification
what is the major N2 reservoir?
atmosphere
what is the major carbon reservoir?
minerals, limestone
what is the major water reservoir?
oceans
___________ = we can’t use it for life
unavailable
minerals in rocks are available/unavailable
unavailable
_________ is the main storage of compound/molecule
reservoir
_________ is movement between compartments
flux
feeding relationships between organisms are referred to as _________ structure of the community
trophic
keystone species are/aren’t abundant in a community
aren’t
_____________ includes parasitism, mutualism and commensalism
symbiosis
more diverse communities produce more _________ and are more resistant to invasion
biomass
bottom up/top down model shows unidirectional influence
bottom up
according to _________ ________ hypothesis, moderate levels of disturbance can foster higher species diversity
intermediate disturbance
according to island equilibrium model, species richness would be greatest on an island that is small/large, remote/close
large
close
________ is the new biomass added per period of time
NPP (Net Primary Production)
_______ is total biomass accumulation over time
NEP (Net Ecosystem Production)
_________ is using organisms to detoxify an ecosystem
bioremediation
___________ _________ uses organisms to add essential nutrients to an ecosystem
biological augmentation
_________ ________ is using human (physical) activity to restore it
physical reconstruction
is global warming happening equally everywhere?
no
urban areas heat up more compared to what is just outside the city is exemplified by urban _________ _________
heat island
urban areas have lower/higher albedo
lower
urban areas are darker and have lower/higher albedo
lower
ozone is/isn’t a pollutant in urban environments
is
what chemical comes from car exhaust?
nitrous oxide
_________ point is when the environment can’t be recovered
tipping
________ forcing is when we’re pushing the environment to a point where it’s very hard to recover it
global
_________ _______ is going from one state in an ecological system to another
state shift
California Current is warm/cold
cold
Gulf Stream is warm/cold
warm
Antarctic Circumpolar Current is warm/cold
cold

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