• Rewrite hedging sentences—avoid using “may” or “seems.”
• Impose parallelism—use the same grammatical pattern to express two or more similar ideas.
• Correct dangling modifiers—delete phrases with no connection to the subject of the sentence or those that are placed too closely to the wrong noun or verb.
• Reword long noun sequences—avoid stringing many nouns together as modifiers.
• Replace camouflaged verbs—watch for verbs that have been turned into nouns.
• Clarify sentence structure—keep the subject and predicate of a sentence as close together as possible.
• Clarify awkward references—avoid words and phrases that cause readers to jump from point to point.
• Moderate your enthusiasm—don’t overuse adjectives and adverbs to sound falsely positive
A complex sentence expresses one main thought (the independent clause) and one or more subordinate thoughts (dependent clauses) related to it, often separated by a comma.
When you know your audience will be receptive to your message, use the direct approach: Start with the main idea (such as a recommendation, conclusion, or request) and follow that with your supporting evidence.
selecting the medium and producing the message
analyzing the situation and adapting the message
The subject and purpose of the message should be confined to the middle portion, while the conclusion should help readers understand how the message is organized
always include a sincere apology for the trouble caused to the receiver
pointing out benefits to the audience
Express best wishes without ending on a falsely upbeat note.