ASE B6 Test – Damage Analysis & Estimating

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What is the difference between a unitized frame and a uni-body?
answer

There is no difference. In a uni-body or unitized vehicle, the frame and body are incorporated into a single welded structure.
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Should exhaust damaged systems be welded and repaired, or replaced all together?
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Replaced. Exhaust gases contain poisonous carbon monoxide and leaks could create dangerous conditions for passengers.
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The \”Inside Out\” sequence refers to…
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Calculating Labor times
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SAI refers to…
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An angle in the suspension system – the steering axis inclination. This can be measured using wheel alignment equipment. Incorrect SAI contributes to poor handling.
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Using a tram gauge an appraiser can easily detect a ________ condition.
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\”Sway\”. With a tram gauge, it is easy to take linear measurements, such as point-to-point measurements across the front cage of a car.
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Appraiser A says all brake fluid should be drained and replaced when replacing a caliper on the left front of a six-month old car. Appraiser B saya all that is required is refilling the brake fluid and bleeding the system. Who is right? A, B, Both A & B, Neither A or B?
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Appraiser B only. Although brake fluid does become contaminated with moisture over time, this is not likely on a 6 month old car.
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Clean up time in reference to salvage parts means to….
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Remove the oil and grease from the parts. The painting is a separate billable expense.
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Appraiser A says storage charges are calculated per day at the prevailing market rate. Appraiser B says they are calculated at the shop’s posted rate. Who is right? A, B, A & B, neither A or B?
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Appraiser B only. The shop in possession of the vehicle can charge whatever they want, although most insurance companies will only pay for charges that correspond to reasonable market prices.
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Appraiser A Says the factory E-coat corrosion protection must be replaced anytime it is damaged in a collision. Appraiser B says the E-coat must be restored to a level equivalent to that created at the factory. Who is right? A, B, A & B, neither A or B?
answer

Both A & B. The factory E-coat must always be replaced when damaged and it must be done to a level equivalent with the factory work.
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\”Set up and measure\” refers to what?
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The dollar allowance for the time a technician needs to mount a vehicle on a repair system to measure length, width from center-line and height from the datum plane.
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What are air conditioning components generally classified as?
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Mechanical items. Mechanical operations are generally those bolted items inward of the radiator.
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Would an alternator be classified as a \”betterment\” item?
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No. Betterment applies to normal wear & tear items that a vehicle owner should expect to replace in the life of a vehicle. Example: Battery, shocks, brake linings, tires, etc.
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Would aftermarket paint sealant cause a problem with a vehicle warranty?
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No. Example of things that could cause a problem with a vehicle warranty are: repaired wiring harness, wire splicing, etc.
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A hybrid vehicles electric traction motors operate on…
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650 volts. While some components may run on 12 volts, some Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) batteries contain as much as 650 volts
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TTY (torque to yield) refers to…
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The strength of a fastener, its allowable reuse and the fact that a fastener deforms upon application of torque. It is a one time use fastener that is used on critical applications. When it is torqued, the threads deform. locking it in to place.
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UPCR stands for…
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Uniform Procedures for Collision Repair (by I-CAR).
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To be considered \”damaged\”, its _____ and _________ must be unequal with that before the accident in terms of the way something looks and operates.
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form and function.
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Another term often used to describe \”damage\” is____________.
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Nonconformity.
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When checking beneath a vehicle, you divide the under-body into three parts. What are those parts?
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Front, middle/center and rear.
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The centerline of a vehicle is….
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an imaginary plane that divides the vehicle in half from front to rear.
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When inspection a vehicle, the surface you are inspection it on should be ______, ____, and free of ________.
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Level, dry and free of debris. (level will help determine structural damage, dry for leaks, etc).
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Generally, these two types of vehicles are NOT great candidates for repairable vehicles:
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Flood vehicles and vehicles that have had fires. Also, vehicles that have had major driveline damage (engine or transmission crushed).
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Bent seat attaching hardware, broken motor mounts, cracked transmission cases or damaged electronic components are all examples of _________ damage.
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Indirect. You must trace the energy into the vehicle structure and looks closely for kinks, buckles and other signs of distortion.
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PUD stands for…
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Prior unrelated damage (PUD). It is the role of the appraiser to attempt to identify pre-existing damage on the vehicle.
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The most obvious way to determine pre-existing damage (PUD), is to __________ the _________.
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Interview the customer.
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Some telltale signs of detecting prior collision work are….
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Over-spray, paint tape edges, tool marks on fasteners, misaligned panels and missing Federal Anti-Theft Standard labels (FATS).
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Another sign of prior repairs is inconsistent _____ ______ thickness.
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\” paint film\” . This can be measured with paint film thickness or mil gauges. OEM paint will measure in the range of 3.5 to 5.5 mils (refinished panels can double that and a blended panel can be as much as 50% greater in thickness.)
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What is it called when a part folds onto itself like an accordion?
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Convolution. A convoluted structural component should be replaced.
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What three things should be considered in any repair?
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Safety, retained value and the vehicle owners best interest.
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When inspecting a vehicle, should your inspection be localized into one specific area?
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No, kinetic energy has a tendency to travel through a vehicle and cause damages elsewhere.
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What are some measuring tools used to identify structural damage?
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computerized measuring systems, universal three-dimensional measuring systems, laser systems and the tram gauge.
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What are the three spatial planes when measuring a vehicles dimensions?
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Height from datum, width from centerline and length.
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This occurs when the front cage of a uni-body is distorted from its former symmetrical configuration to that of a parallelogram.
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A sway condition.
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R&R
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Remove and Replace
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R&I
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Remove and reinstall
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What’s a simple field test to determine if the vehicle has a clearcoat?
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Take a piece of fine grit sandpaper and scuff the top coat. If the material on the sandpaper appears white, as opposed to a darker base-coat color, there is a clear-coat on the finish. (this test is not useful when testing white or light colored vehicles).
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BC/CC stands for…
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Base coat/ Clear coat
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What does a Tri-coat finish consist of?
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Color coat, a pearl or mica coat and a clear coat.
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Wiring harnesses are the vehicles…
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Nervous system.
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When welding on a vehicle, it is standard practice to first….
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Disconnect the negative cable from the battery to prevent back feed of the weld current and potential damage.
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When replacing air bag modules, they should be…
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New, factory units.
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Most air bag systems consist of…
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air bag module, the clock spring or coil, diagnostic control module, impact sensors, dash indicator light and knee bolster.
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The SRS wiring harness is usually replaced, but some manufacturers are now allowing it to be repaired. True or false.
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True.
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Other than crashing the car, is there another test or way of knowing the airbag will deploy when in an accident?
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Nope.
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ETRs stands for….
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Emergency Tensioning Retractors (seatbelt tensioners)
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An example of a one time, single use component is…
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airbag
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What must always appear on your estimate documents, because it is a primary measure of the vehicles use and value?
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Mileage.
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What is the most obvious and common of all repairs to safety systems?
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Air bag service.
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O/H stands for….
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overhaul
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\”LS B/S mldg\” is nomenclature for…
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left side body side molding
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When looking at labor R&R times, remember to look at the _________ and __________ for additional additions and subtractions in to the labor times.
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Headnotes and footnotes.
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What are the four labor time category’s for the estimating guide?
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Structural, non-structural, mechanical or refinish.
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Salvage dealer’s prices are usually considered wholesale and are subject to a __________ by the body shop.
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Markup.
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What are P-Pages used for?
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Determining the time/cost of procedures that are and are \”not included\” in a specific operation (gets rid of overlap and adds time for needed tasks).
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What is a controversial task in this industry, in regards to painting a repaired area and P-pages?
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The task of feather, fill and block sanding a repaired area. It involves extra time, so be sure to check the \”P-Pages\” for the labor times.
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What is overlap?
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Time taken each operation in which redundant tasks occur.
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P-Pages
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Specify included and \”not included\” operations. Some tasks involved may include labor time based on good judgement.
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Overlap deductions
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When time is taken out of an estimate for each operation where redundant tasks occur, so they don’t have to pay for anything twice.
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Additional material and charges include:
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Caulk, refrigerants (R12 & R134a),sounds deadners, clips, hardware, car covers for paint masking, coolant, washer fluid, lubricants (transmission fluid/brake fluid/ power steering fluid, etc), structural bonding material, etc.
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What is the most accepted alternative to the traditional formula for determining the cost of paint related materials, including paint, reducer, thinner, additives, activators and hardners?
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the Mitchell Refinish Material Guide (duh).
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Type of damage: Side Sway
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Change in Width
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Type of damage: Sag
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Change in Height
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Type of damage: Mash or Collapse
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Change in Length
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Type of damage: Twist
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Change in Height
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Type of damage: Diamond
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Change in Diagonal
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Sectioning procedures: You must always pay close attention to factory recommendations when replacing specific sections. What is an example of a discouraged and/or forbidden type of sectioning repair?
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A vertical splice on a quarter panel (very common sectioning location) and it is also inadvisable to section a structural pillar near an anchor used for a seatbelt
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Damage in ______ _________ vehicles can often be harder to detect in a preliminary inspection.
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Full frame vehicles.
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Some signs of structural damage on unitized and full frame vehicles include:
answer

Misaligned panels, hoods, bumpers, doors and body sections. Also, look for signs of shifted assemblies at the points of attachment for engines, transmissions and transaxles.
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Signs of structural damage are reasons to write for structural measurements tasks in the estimate. How much time do appraiser generally write in to set up and measure a car ?
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Generally 2.5 hours, but can vary according to severity, market, type of vehicle and measuring system.
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What requires the highest level of skill in the collision repair industry and is market driven to a large extent?
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Repairing frame and structural damage.
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What is betterment/depreciation when referring to collision estimating?
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When items that are subject to wear and replacement, like worn tires, brake pads, batteries, belts, etc. are replaced and the customer is getting something \”better\” than they had before. Adjustments must be made in the price.
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What are some of the items that are good for the life of the vehicle and are not subject to betterment/depreciation adjustments?
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Springs, transmissions, engines, steering racks and control arms.
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What is unjust enrichment?
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When the insured or claimant is put in a better position than he/she was prior to the loss (i.e. putting new tires on without making a betterment adjustment)
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What are some of the systems used to determine the ACV (actual cash value) of the vehicle being estimated?
answer

NADA, Kelly Blue Book, and Edmunds are commonly used to determine a vehicles value.
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Which type of vehicles have a higher salvage value?
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SUV’s, vehicles damaged in rear-end collisions and luxury imports. Keep this in mind when a damaged vehicle is \”borderline totaled\”.
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What is the general threshold used to determine total losses (what percentage of ACV or actual cash value)?
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Generally, 80%, however the percentage is usually at the discretion of the insurer.
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Procedure Explanations are referred to as….
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P-Pages.
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There are federal regulations mandating the display of information labels placed in the underhood area of a vehicle. What is required when replacing these parts?
answer

Anytime a part is replaced that bears an information label, you are required to write for the replacement of that label.
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When replacing parts with VIN labels on them, should you transfer the VIN label onto the new part?
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No, that is illegal. New parts should come with R-DOT stickers, which must be visible after that part is painted (they usually have a clear layer of plastic that will pull of after the painting is done).
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The _____________ company is obligated in EVERY state to pay the cost to either replace a vehicle or return it to the condition it was prior to the loss.
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The insurance company. It is your duty as an appraiser to provide an appraisal that will allow the repairer to return the vehicle to its pre-loss condition, based on prevailing market conditions.
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What are the three types of vehicle construction?
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1: Unibody – the most common passenger car design. 2: Body over frame, also known as the perimeter frame (or ladder-style frame), which is common is SUV’s and light trucks. 3: Space Frame – defined as a structural frame with non load bearing panels – similar to the unibody design, but it can meet crash standards without its outer body panels (some early Saturns were space frame design).
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What’s the most difficult frame design to repair?
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Uni-body. They are very prone to indirect damage and must be inspected thoroughly. Pay close attention to floor pans, under seat areas and roof panels.
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Whats the most common type of structural damage to unibody cars?
answer

A sway condition, Identified by cross measuring the underhood area (assuming the car is of symmetrical design), where the front section of the inner structure does not measure identically from point to point and the square configuration becomes a parallelogram.
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What type of frame design offer’s greater resistance to pulling and are easier to repair, but you have to be careful because the \”body\” itself may appear undamaged?
answer

The body over frame design. Because the bodies are mounted independent of the frame, the doors, hood and truck lids may open/close just fine, in spite of a bent frame.
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What’s the hardest type of frame damage to repair on a full frame vehicle and often requires the replacement of a full frame assembly?
answer

Diamond damage, where the frame becomes a parallelogram, with one side measuring a different length over the course of the entire chassis.
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What does the term \”set up and measure\” refer to?
answer

Time and/or dollar allowance for a technician to mount a vehicle on a repair system in order to measure length, width from center-line and height from datum plane.
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Which structural components are designed to sustain impacts in a controlled manner by crumpling?
answer

Frame rails, radiator supports and floors. In doing so, the enrgy is absorbed and dissipated, thus protecting the passenger cabin and becoming the \”sacrificial components\” of the vehicle.
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According to some manufacturers,, a kinked frame rail must be __________ and not repaired.
answer

Replaced. A kink is defined as a sharp bend with a small radius, usually more than 90 degrees over a short distance.
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When structural components are convoluted (folded upon themselves like an accordion). They must be _____________.
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Replaced. Also, replace any structural component that requires the application of plastic filler to give it an undamaged appearance.
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What does HSLA stand for?
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High-strength, Low alloy steel. Often found in structural components and should never be repaired with heat.
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What does UHSS stand for?
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Ultra High-Strength Steel, alos known as Martensitic steel. UHSS steel should NEVER be repaired or straightened in any way, ONLY replaced (door intrusion beams and and bumper reinforcements are usually made is UHSS steel)
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Is aluminum repairable?
answer

Yes. Aluminum inner structures, such as those used on the 5 series BMW sedans, require the use of rivets and structural adhesives for their replacement.
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What type of plastic is more difficult/more challenging to repair than rigid types of plastic?
answer

Thermal Polyolefin, often used on bumper covers.
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What are the two types of automotive platics?
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1: Thermoplastics, which are more soft and easily reformed with heat 2: Thermoset plastics, which tend to be more rigid
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How to you test a type of plastic if you cannot find and identifying symbol or label?
answer

Shave a piece of plastic off of the subject part, drop it into a bucket of water. Thermoplastics will float and thermoset plastics will sink.
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What is encapsulated glass?
answer

Glass that is part of the structural integrity of the vehicle (on most passenger cars today), bonded to the body with urethane and other advanced adhesive compounds.
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What temperature does it need to be when replacing glass for urethane adhesives to properly cure?
answer

at least 65 degress F.
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Are insurance companies liable for the replacement aftermarket parts, such as rims, suspension, stereos, etc? (as opposed to putting back OEM parts)
answer

Yes – the vehicle owner are entitled to have the vehicle restored to its pre-loss condition. Some things though (like tires) will be subject to betterment adjustments
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What must be done with damaged fuel lines, exhaust/emission systems?
answer

Federal and state laws mandate they must be put back in thier original condition and REPLACED, not repaired, since the safety of the passengers are at risk.
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Whats more hazardous, welding near a full tank of gas or an empty one?
answer

An empty tank is more hazardous. So never just \”empty\” the gas tank, make sure you remove it if you’re doing any welding nearby.
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What is a vapor canister? (fuel related)
answer

It contains charcoal granules that absorb fuel vapors and is often damaged during collisions.
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Exhaust components consist of…
answer

exhaust pipes, catalytic converters, mufflers, resonators and tailpipes. (oxygen sensors are apart of the engine management controls)
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Most unitized body vehicles are equipped with what type of suspensions and steering systems?
answer

Strut-type suspensions and rack and pinion steering systems. Although, multi-link front suspensions are becoming increasingly common as vehicles assume the lower hood profiles
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Anytime there is structural damage to a unitized vehicle, or if a wheel or tire is damaged or shows signs of impact, what should be included on your estimate?
answer

a 4 wheel alignment.
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What are the major steering and suspension angles you must be familair with?
answer

Toe, camber, caster and steering axis inclination (SAI)
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Whats the most common type of engine/transaxle design in front wheel drive passenger cars?
answer

\”The Transversely Mounted Engine/Transaxle\” (transmission on the left or right of the engine and no driveshaft)
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A CV joint is also known as a…
answer

Constant velocity Joint.
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Bearing damage is often undetected until the vehicle is…..
answer

operated on the road.
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What is a Parallelogram type steering system?
answer

The kind you find on most old cars, with the big center link, tie rods, pitman arm and adjustment sleeve (what we see on tractor trailers all the time)
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What is rack and pinion steering?
answer

What we see on most front wheel drive cars, with tie rods, boots covering the rack housing and the rack gear that moves the Pinion gear.
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It is not unusual for a Hybrid vehicle to contain a charge of ______ volts.
answer

650 volts. Even a dead Hybrid battery can have a charge of 300 volts, which can be lethal to humans. Always disable the service link plug before working on a Hybrid, which is usually bright orange in color
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When is the removal of the Nickel Metal Hydride battery on a Hybrid vehicle required?
answer

1: When welding within 12 inches of the battery. 2: When access behind or under the battery is required. (remember this when doing your estimate, as it takes a lot of time to remove these batteries). 3: When painting the car (this is because any temperatures above 150 degrees F will cause damage.) Another option is to let it air dry and not use the oven.
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Technicians working on the vehicle electrical system should wear a _____ _____ , to prevent any static charge.
answer

static strap – which is worn around the wrist and connected to a point on the vehicles body.
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What is the most common function of an electronic component?
answer

A Sensor, which sends data to the ECM.
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Supplemental restraint systems (SRS) include:
answer

driver/passenger airbags, side impact air bags and seat-belts.
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Airbag system components include:
answer

Airbag module, side curtain module, clock spring, harness, cable, reel, control unit, labeling, sensors and a harness to the sensors.
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Seat-belts consist of:
answer

Pre-Tensioners, reels and points of attachment.
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When servicing an airbag system, the components must be ….
answer

Replaced, not repaired. Only some insurance companies will require you to write for a salvage airbag and use should get a \”hold harmless\” agreement if they require that.
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TTY stands for…
answer

Torque to Yield
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Torque to Yield (TTY) bolts stretch when torque is applied and deform, which makes them a ….
answer

one time use bolt and must be replaced with the new part (often used on aluminum heads with iron blocks).
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Galvanic corrosion is when….
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dissimilar metals come into contact and corrosion can occur (such as an allumunum hood attached to steel hinges). This is prevented by using coated bolts. These bolts usualy have a green coating and should be replaced with new ones (one time use fasteners).
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Faster grades are marked with SAE markings stamped on the bolt. The higher the grade, the….
answer

Stronger the bolt. 3 lines = grade 5, 4= grade 6, 5 = grade 7, 6 = grade 8 hardware.
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Paint related materials are paint (color), basecoats, sealers, primers, adhesives, clearcoats, hardners, etc., that are applied with a….
answer

Spray gun. Any consumables in the paint operation are considered paint material.
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Other than paint materials, all other materials used in the body shop are considered…
answer

Body materials, including plastic fillers, sandpaper, caulks, sealers, sealants, rags, etc.
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Nonconformity in function
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When something does not work like it did, like a door that does not open as wide as it once did.
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LKQ stands for….
answer

Like, Kind and Quality. (could be salvage or aftermarket parts)
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In some cases, salvage sections taken from a unibody vehicle will more closely replicate the pre-loss condition. It can also be more…
answer

Cost effective, because it can save a lot of labor hours repairing something that can be purchased at a salvage yard. Safety related parts, however, are seldom replaced with salvage parts (seatbelts, airbags, etc.).
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The insurer’s right to a cost effective repair must be balanced with….
answer

the insured’s right to be indemnified in the claim.
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In shops with Direct Repair Programs (DRP’s), the shop appraiser becomes the…
answer

de facto insurance appraiser.

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