Art History Ch. 18

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Matthias Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece (closed) 1509-1515. Oil on panel. Colmar France. Central panel; we see jesus suffering and the crucifixion. The wings depict St. Sebastian (left) who was invoked against the plague. Also St. Anthony Abbot (right), who was revered as a healer.
Matthias Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece (closed) 1509-1515. Oil on panel. Colmar France. Central panel; we see jesus suffering and the crucifixion. The wings depict St. Sebastian (left) who was invoked against the plague. Also St. Anthony Abbot (right), who was revered as a healer.
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Who was the artist? What is the name of this? When was this done? What medium was used? Where is it located. Composition.
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Matthias Grünewald, The Annunciation; Madonna and Child with Angels; The resurrection. 1509-1515. Oil on panel. Colmar, France. Left is annunciation. Center, Madonna and child with angels. Right, resurrection. Triptych is shown. A lot of religious symbolism is shown here. White and glass symbolize purity and virginity. (extra) The water pot next to the tub in the center, alluding to purity and childbirth.
Matthias Grünewald, The Annunciation; Madonna and Child with Angels; The resurrection. 1509-1515. Oil on panel. Colmar, France. Left is annunciation. Center, Madonna and child with angels. Right, resurrection. Triptych is shown. A lot of religious symbolism is shown here. White and glass symbolize purity and virginity. (extra) The water pot next to the tub in the center, alluding to purity and childbirth.
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Who was the artist? What is this called? When was this done? What medium was used? Where is it located. Composition. What type of painting is this? What type of symbolism is shown?
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Matthias Grünwald, The Resurrection, from second view of the isenheim altarpiece, 1509-1515. Oil on panel. Colmar France. Celebrate events that are as proud as the crucifixion is gloomy.
Matthias Grünwald, The Resurrection, from second view of the isenheim altarpiece, 1509-1515. Oil on panel. Colmar France. Celebrate events that are as proud as the crucifixion is gloomy.
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Who was the artist. What is the name of this? When was this done? What medium was used? Where is it located. Composition.
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Albrecht Dürer, The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. 1498. Wood cut. The image depicts war, conquest, famine, and death overrunning the earth.
Albrecht Dürer, The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. 1498. Wood cut. The image depicts war, conquest, famine, and death overrunning the earth.
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Who was the artist. What is the name of this? When was this done? What medium was used? Composition.
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Albrecht Dürer, Adam and Eve. 1504. Engraving. Located in Boston. Evil and temptation are shown. Engraving shows them in paradise. the 4 Humors’ co-exist in balance, symbolized by animals.
Albrecht Dürer, Adam and Eve. 1504. Engraving. Located in Boston. Evil and temptation are shown. Engraving shows them in paradise. the 4 Humors' co-exist in balance, symbolized by animals.
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Who was the artist. What is the name of this? When was this done? What medium was used? Composition.
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Albrecht Dürer, Self-Portrait. 1500. He was very aware of the renovations of the renaissance, tried to innovate quickly. We see an artist with long curly hair and a fur jacket. Combined style was the name of the style. Oil on panel. instead of using 3/4 pose, we see him frontally in the composition.
Albrecht Dürer, Self-Portrait. 1500. He was very aware of the renovations of the renaissance, tried to innovate quickly. We see an artist with long curly hair and a fur jacket. Combined style was the name of the style. Oil on panel. instead of using 3/4 pose, we see him frontally in the composition.
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Who was the artist. what was the name of it?When was this done? What was he aware of? What was the style shown? What medium was used? Composition.
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Albrecht Dürer, Melencolia I. 1514. . Engraving. London. It is one of a trio of prints that dürer sold or gave away. image represents a winged female holding a compass, surrounded by the tools of the mathematician. Depicts that the artists humor would be melancholy.
Albrecht Dürer, Melencolia I. 1514. . Engraving. London. It is one of a trio of prints that dürer sold or gave away. image represents a winged female holding a compass, surrounded by the tools of the mathematician. Depicts that the artists humor would be melancholy.
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Who was the artist. What is the name of this? What medium was used? When was it done? Where is it located. Comp.
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Hans Holbein the Younger. (“The Ambassadors”) Oil on panel. This depicts two ambassadors from France. Painting in 1533, when the English court was in Turmoil because of the King’s impending break with rome. Anamorphic; harsh degree of the skull. Vanitas; the reminder that all things in life are fleeting.
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Who was the artist. What is this called? What medium was used? When was it done? Comp.
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Pieter Aertsen. The Meat Stall. Oil on Panel. 1551. Foreground we see products for sale with tiny human figures in the background, almost blotted out by food. The power of the market economy is reflected in the imagery.
Pieter Aertsen. The Meat Stall. Oil on Panel. 1551. Foreground we see products for sale with tiny human figures in the background, almost blotted out by food. The power of the market economy is reflected in the imagery.
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Who was the artist. What is the name of this? What medium was used? When was it done? Comp.
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Pieter Bruegel the Elder. The Return of the Hunters. 1565. Oil on panel. City appears to be lively. In the foreground we see hunters in deep snow. Everything is moving from left to right, including birds. Not a historic painting, something we can relate to. We see figures of lower or middle class.
Pieter Bruegel the Elder. The Return of the Hunters. 1565. Oil on panel. City appears to be lively. In the foreground we see hunters in deep snow. Everything is moving from left to right, including birds. Not a historic painting, something we can relate to. We see figures of lower or middle class.
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Who was the artist. What is the name of this? What medium was used? When was it done? Comp.
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Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Peasant Wedding. 1568. Oil on panel. Located in Vienna. The artist is making fun of the people here. It is very crowded and disorganized. Bride is sitting in front of a curtain and we don’t see the groom. We know its a wedding because of the musicians. Barn because of the hay.
Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Peasant Wedding. 1568. Oil on panel. Located in Vienna. The artist is making fun of the people here. It is very crowded and disorganized. Bride is sitting in front of a curtain and we don't see the groom. We know its a wedding because of the musicians. Barn because of the hay.
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Who was the artist. What is this called? What medium was used? Where is it located. When was it done? Comp.
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The Reformation deeply influenced the art of Central Europe with the destruction of images due to what?
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iconoclasm and a reduction in Church patronage.
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Artists were influenced by what and what?
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Northern European traditions of realism as well as Italian art.
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Albrecht Dürer’s work is a combination of what and what did he use?
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Northern European and Italian traditions, and his use of printmaking spread his influence further.
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Without Church patronage, much of the art was secular in nature, depicting what?
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landscapes, scenes from classical mythology, and portraits.
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Secular themes, including the still life, landscape, and the genre scene, flourished as a result of what?
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Protestantism and the need to cater to popular taste.
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Portraiture flourished in the hands of artists such as who?
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Hans Holbein the Younger.
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With the rise of Protestantism, there were fewer what?
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commissions for religious art.
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What was the focus on within the rise of protestantism?
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the focus was on landscape paintings, still lifes, as well as genre scenes.
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Pieter Aertsen and Pieter Bruegel the Elder used the technique of what?
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“inverted” perspective,
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What did this perspective that Pieter Aertsen and Pieter Bruegel use do?
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placed the subject of the work in the background.
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Bruegel’s images of peasants are still debated in modern scholarship with some suggesting that the peasants are what?
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“caricatures” created to entertain urban dwellers.
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Others suggest that Bruegel’s paintings are what?
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a celebration of the common man.
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Many of Bruegel’s paintings are based on Biblical proverbs, such as what?
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The Blind Leading the Blind
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Martin Luther
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a former Augustinian Friar and the main figure of the German Reformation
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Ninety-five Theses
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written and posted on the church door by Martin Luther. Criticized Catholicism and transferred religious authority from the pope to the individual conscious of each believer.
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Iconoclasm
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This doctrine led to the destruction of many works of art.
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Transforming Triptych
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an example is the Isenheim Altarpiece. It contains 9 panels and 2 sets of movable wings, it opens in 3 stages
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Shrine
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a place regarded as holy because of its associations with a divinity, a sacred person or relic.
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Four Temperaments
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depicted in Durer’s Adam and Eve. Sanguine, energetic and sensual; choleric, quick to anger; phlegmatic, lethargic and slow; melancholic, sad and serious.
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Anamorphic
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Object at an exaggerated angle. Ex; the ambassadors.
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Vanitas
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refers to the passing of time and the notion of life’s brevity and the inevitability of death
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Genre Paintings
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refers to paintings that depict contemporary people performing common activities. Contrasts with grand historical themes.
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Inverted Perspective
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the technique of placing the main theme or narrative of a work in the background and placing a still life or other representation in the foreground.
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How did the Reformation affect the artistic visions in Northern Europe during the sixteenth century?
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During the Reformation artists had to find new ways to pursue their craft and new markets for their products. Protestant reformers were suspicious of sculptural expression so the medium of painting increased in the sixteenth century. As religious patronage waned, artists turned to secular themes. These themes appealed to patrons in the cities and in the courts. To compete in the open market, artists began to specialize in particular subjects or themes.
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Why do you think that the Italian Renaissance aesthetic has less of an impact on Northern European architecture and sculpture in the sixteenth century?
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How does Durer’s approach to the human figure following his Italian trip to differ from that of Grunewald?
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Durer depicts his figures with full volume bodies and ideal proportions. Grunewald does not try and convince the viewer of the weight and substance of his figures.
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How would you compare and contrast the Renaissance in Northern Europe during the sixteenth century with that in Italy during the same period?
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Northern Europe used engraving and woodcut more prominently than Italy.The market for artwork in Northern Europe differed greatly than the guilds used in Italy. Themes were biased towards whatever would sell best in the open market.
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What statement might Durer have been making in Meloncholia I?
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He may be making a statement about the artistic temperament and its relationship to the melancholic humor, sad and serious.
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What is the meaning of the anamorphic representation in Hans Holbein the Younger’s Jean de Dinteville and Georges de Selve?
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In the bottom center of the piece appears an anamorphic representation of a skull. The skull serves as a vanitas or a reminder that all things in this world are fleeting.
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How have Pieter Bruegel the Elder’s images of peasant life, such as the Peasant Wedding, been interpreted by some scholars?
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Urban townspeople could use these pieces to chuckle at their country cousins.
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Where Is matthias Grunewalds paintings located?
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Musee d’unterlinden, colmar, france.

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