APWH Chapter 15
Flashcard maker : Kenneth Miller
What evidence supports the belief that eastern Pacific islands were settled as a result of planned expeditions by Polynesian mariners?
The languages on the islands are similar and there were too many inhabitants for it to be a result of an accidental voyage
The island of Madagascar was settled by?
Sailing in the Indian Ocean was less difficult and dangerous than other places because?
The monsoons were predictable and steady
How did the rise of Medieval Islam give trade in the Indian Ocean an important boost?
Muslim cities provided a demand for valuable commodities, and networks of Muslim traders tied the region together
The Ming Empire attempted to create new Indian Ocean contacts by?
Sending out seven imperial fleets
Which of the following statements is not true of Chinese-African contacts circa 1415-1433?
Interests in new contacts was not confined to the Chinese side, 3 trading cities of East Africa sent delegations to China
The Chinese treasure ships of Zheng He carried what?
Rich silks, precious metals, and other gifts for distant rulers
Why did the Ming court suspend the voyages of Zheng He?
Chinese officials opposed increased contact with \”barbarians\” (foreigners) with no real contribution to China
The greatest mariners of the Atlantic in the early Middle Ages were who?
In addition to sailing up the Pacific coast, early Amerindians from South America also colonized?
The west Indies
What two nations began a maritime revolution that profoundly altered the course of world history?
Portugal and Spain
The motives that led to Iberian overseas expansion were primarily
their economic, religious and political motives to expand contact and increase contact and improvements in maritime and military technology
Why didn’t the Italian states take a lead in exploring the Atlantic?
Venice and Genoa preferred their Muslim alliances and the ships of the Mediterranean could not handle the Atlantic’s rougher weather
Which of the following is a reason for Iberian overseas exploration?
Reasons for exploration: Christian militancy, Iberian search for material goods and their eagerness to find new routes via the Atlantic to Africa and Asia
An early impetus for Portuguese maritime exploration was to
Gain access to the sub-Saharan gold trade
Prince Henry of Portugal was known as Henry the Navigator because he did what?
Founded an institution in Sagres for studying navigation and getting info on lands past Muslim North Africa
How did the Portuguese conquerors of Muslim Ceuta in Morocco react to what they saw?
They felt that their homes were inferior, and when they saw the gold and slave caravans, they wanted to go deeper into Africa and reach the gold
Describe how the 2 (compass & astrolabe) important navigational technologies affected sailing.
The astrolabe allowed mariners to determine their location at sea by measuring the position of the sun or stars
The advantage of the caravel was what?
They were ⅕ the size of the largest Junk ships and because of that they could enter shallow waters around the coast and explore upriver but they were strong enough to weather strong ocean storms
An important addition to the maritime revolution was what?
An important addition was made by Henry’s explorers, they learned how to use the winds to return speedily to Portugal.
Why is Henry the Navigator viewed as the father of exploration?
Henry’s explorers made an important addition to the maritime revolution
The first financial return from the Portuguese voyages came from?
Selling slaves captured from the Northwest African coast and Canary Islands in the 1400s
Why was Bartholomeu Dias’ voyage significant?
He was the first Portuguese explorer to sail around the southern tip of Africa and enter the Indian Ocean
In 1500, what did Portuguese mariners discover while attempting to find a favorable wind around Africa?
The Eastern coast of South America, laying the basis for their later claim to Portugal
Explain how Christopher Columbus came to Portugal and eventually won favor with Spain.
What did Columbus promise Spain he would do? Was he successful?
He promised Spain he would \”acquire islands and mainlands\”
Columbus carried a letter from Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand to?
Rulers of the East, including one issued to the \”Grand Khan\”
The powerful African kingdom Benin of West Africa limited their contact with the Portuguese by doing what?
They rejected the Catholic faith and declined to receive more missionaries
The slave trade in West Africa was controlled by what source?
Royal Monopoly, the oba first raised the price of slaves and then imposed restrictions that limited their sale
How were the first Portuguese who landed in India greeted?
The ruler showed little interest in becoming trade partners with them and laughed at the gifts they presented
The Portuguese focus in the eastern Indian Ocean was on what?
In the Indian Ocean, the Portuguese used their control of the major port cities to enforce an even larger trading monopoly
How did China greet the Portuguese?
Local officials and merchants were interested in profitable new trade with the Portuguese and persuaded the imperial government to allow the Portuguese to establish a trading post at Macao in 1557
Explain the African encounters with the Portuguese before 1550
The relations were all different due to strategies and leadership of certain African states, as well as Portuguese policies
The result of Portuguese domination of Indian Ocean trade routes was what?
The result was it brought them considerable profit
The difference between the Spanish Empire and the Portuguese Empire was what?
The Spanish established a vast territorial empire in the Americas, while the Portuguese established trading empires in Africa and Asia. The Spanish kingdoms had somewhat greater resources to draw on
The first Amerindians to contact the Spanish were who?
A conquistador was an early 16th century Spanish adventurer who conquered Mexico, Central America and Peru
Explain how Cortez conquered the Aztecs?
Cortes overcame Aztec opposition with cavalry charges and steel swords and by gaining the support of thousands of Amerindian allies from among the unhappy subjects of the Aztecs
How did Francisco Pizarro defeat the Inca Empire?
Pizarro and his men first seized the Inca emperor, Atahualpa, and then used their cannons to confuse the Inca army and used their swords to kill the soldiers