APUSH Vocabulary 15

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William Seward
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Secretary of State who was responsible for purchasing Alaskan Territory from Russia. By purchasing Alaska, he expanded the territory of the country at a reasonable price.
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Alaska purchase
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Secretary of State William Seward bought Alaska from Russia for $7.2 Million (“Seward’s Folly”)
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Pan-American Conference (1889)
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first headed by Blaine and held in Washington, D.C.; led to the formulation of a plan for reciprocal tariff reduction and the beginnings of long and increasingly important inter-American relations
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Venezuela boundary dispute
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Dispute between Great Britain and Venezuela over the boundary between Venezuela and British Guiana; British had ignored American demands to arbitrate the matter with Sec. of State Olney saying that Britain was violating the Monroe Doctrine; president Cleveland supported Venezuela and decided to determine the boundary line and if Britain resisted this, the U.S. could declare war to enforce it; Britain eventually agreed to arbitration
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jingoism
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fanatical patriotism
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Valeriano Weyler
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He was a Spanish General referred to as “Butcher” Weyler. He undertook to crush the Cuban rebellion by herding many civilians into barbed-wire reconcentration camps, where they could not give assistance to the armed insurrectionists. The civilians died in deadly pestholes. “Butcher” was removed in 1897.
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yellow journalism
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sensationalist journalism
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Spanish-American War
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In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans’ fight for independence
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DeLome Letter
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A private letter written by Enrique Depuy de Lome, Spainish Minister to U.S, critized President Mckinley call him “weak” and “a bidder for the admiration of the crowd”
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U.S.S. Maine
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Ship that explodes off the coast of Cuba in Havana harbor and helps contribute to the start of the Spanish-American War
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Teller Amendment
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Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war
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George Dewey
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a United States naval officer remembered for his victory at Manila Bay in the Spanish-American War
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Rough Riders
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volunteer soldiers led by Theodore Roosevelt during the Spanish American War
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Liliuokalani
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The queen of Hawaii in 1887 who disliked foreigners entering her country. She didn’t want to go to war with America because she knew her people would get massacred.
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Philippine annexation
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A treaty ratified on Feb. 6, 1899 guaranteed this. The anti-imperialists fell just two votes short of defeating this treaty.
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Emilio Aguinaldo
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Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901. (p. 743)
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Anti-Imperialist League
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group of antiimperialists that advocated for isolationism
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insular cases
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Determined that inhabitants of U.S. territories had some, but not all, of the rights of U.S. citizens.
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Platt Amendment
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Legislation that severely restricted Cuba’s sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble
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John Hay
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Secretary of State under McKinley and Roosevelt who pioneered the open-door policy and Panama canal
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spheres of influence
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areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly (ex. Europe and U.S. in China)
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Open Door policy
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A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
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xenophobia
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an irrational fear of foreigners or strangers
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Boxer Rebellion
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A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.
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big-stick policy
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Roosevelt’s philosophy – In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen
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Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
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U.S. garantee of independence for newly created Republic of Panama
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Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
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it gave the US the right to build and fortify a canal
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Panama Canal
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a ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus of Panama built by the United States (1904-1914)
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George Goethals
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supervised the Panama Canal when things got bad
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William Gorgas
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Army physician who helped eradicate Yellow Fever and Malaria from Panama so work on the Panama Canal could proceed
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Roosevelt Corollary
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Roosevelt’s 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
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Santo Domingo
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The Dominican Republic, A nation who was unable to pay its debts to Britain, and was put under Military control until the demands were met.
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Russo-Japanese War
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Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea, Manchuria, etc. Began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage and win. Both sent reps to Portsmouth, NH where TR mediated Treaty of New Hampshire in 1905. TR won the nobel peace prize for his efforts, the 1st pres. to do so.
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Treaty of Portsmouth
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(1905) ended the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). It was signed in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, after negotiations brokered by Theodore Roosevelt (for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize). Japan had dominated the war and received an indemnity, the Liaodong Peninsula in Manchuria, and half of Sakhalin Island, but the treaty was widely condemned in Japan because the public had expected more.
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great white fleet
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1907-1909 – Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the “Gentlemen’s Agreement.”
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Root-Takahira Agreement
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1908 – Japan / U.S. agreement in which both nations agreed to respect each other’s territories in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door policy in China.
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Treaty of Wentworth
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Treaty passed at the Wentworth by the Sea Hotel by Roosevelt between Japan and Russia
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Algeciras Conference
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International conference called to deal with the Moroccan question. French get Morocco, Germany gets nothing, isolated. Result is U.S, Britain, France, Russia see Germany as a threat.
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dollar diplomacy
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President Taft’s policy of linking American business interests to diplomatic interests abroad
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Lodge Corollary
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A corollary to the Monroe Doctrine proposed by Henry Cabot Lodge and ratified by the U.S. Senate in 1912 forbidding any foreign power or foreign interest of any kind to acquire sufficient territory in the Western Hemisphere so as to put that government in “practical power of control”.
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Victoriano Huerta
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He was a Mexican military officer and President of Mexico who was also leader of the violent revolution that took place in 1913. His rise to power caused many Mexicans to cross the border as well as angering the United States who saw him as a dictator.
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Tampico incident
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In April 1914, some U.S. sailors were arrested in Tampico, Mexico. President Wilson used the incident to send U.S. troops into northern Mexico. His real intent was to unseat the Huerta government there. After the Niagara Falls Conference, Huerta abdicated and the confrontation ended.
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Pancho Villa
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Mexican revolutionary leader (1877-1923) Did many good things, but killed a lot of people. Wanted to take money from the rich and give it to the poor.
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Venustiano Carranza
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(1859-1920) Mexican revolutionist and politician; he led forces against Vitoriano Huerta during the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920).
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John J. Pershing
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Commander of American Expeditionary Force of over 1 million troops who insisted his soldiers fight as independent units so US would have independent role in shaping the peace

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