APUSH TERMS UNIT 10

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Alfred C. Kinsey
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wrote the bestselling books Sexual Behavior in the Human Male and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female, in which he discussed sexual orientation and behavior, subjects that were taboo prior to the 60s. Kinsey’s research contributed to the sexual revolution at the time
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Levittown
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Unincorporated community of southeast New York. Founded in 1947. Was a low-cost housing development for WWII veterans
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New Frontier
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– Term used by John F. Kennedy to describe economic and social challenges facing the US. Kennedy maintained that, like Americans of frontier in 19th century, Americans of 20th century had to rise to new challenges, such as achieving equality of opportunity for all. Epitomized Kennedy’s commitment to renewal and change.
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Lee Harvey Oswald
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– Assassinated Kennedy on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas. Killed by Jack Ruby (nightclub owner) 2 days later. Investigation of murders concluded that Oswald acted alone in assassination.
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Great Society
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President Lyndon Johnson’s domestic program. Would include a “war on poverty” and federal support for education, medical care for elderly, and legal protection for African Americans deprived of voting rights by state regulations. Also proposed a new department of housing and urban development to coordinate federal housing projects.
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1965 Voting Rights Act
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– Authorized attorney general to appoint officials to register voters. Ensured voting rights of African Americans
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Abstract expressionism
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– School of painting that flourished after WWII until early 1960s. Characterized by view that art is nonrepresentational and chiefly improvisational.
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Black Power
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– Stokely Carmichael was unwilling to work with white civil-rights activists. In 1966, he called for civil rights movements to be “black-staffed, black-controlled, and black financed”. He later moved onto the Black Panthers (self-styled urban revolutionaries in Oakland, California).
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Cesar Chavez
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– Union organizer and social activist of 1960s. Founded National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) and United Farm Workers (UFW). Led a five-year nonviolent boycott against California grape growers, protesting poor working conditions and use of pesticides harmful to farm workers. The boycott was successful in winning new rights for workers.
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Keynesian economics
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– Economic theory stating that active government intervention in marketplace and monetary policy is best method of ensuring economic growth and stability.
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Cuban Missile Crisis
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– 1962. Major confrontation between US and Soviet Union over the presence of Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba. In October 1962, US spy plane detected a ballistic missile on a launching site in Cuba. Kennedy placed a naval blockade around Cuba, and for several days US and Soviet Union hovered on the brink of war. Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev finally agreed to remove missiles in return for a secret commitment from US to withdraw its own missiles from Turkey and to never invade Cuba. Increased tensions during Cold War and fueled nuclear arms race between the two.
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1964 Civil Rights Act –
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Law intended to end discrimination based on race, color, religion, or national origin. Guarantees equal voting rights. Prohibits segregation or discrimination in places of public accommodation. Bans discrimination by trade unions, schools, or employers involved in interstate commerce or do business with federal government. Calls for desegregation of public schools. Assures nondiscrimination in distribution of funds under federally assisted programs. Created Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to enforced law. Eliminated remaining restrictions on African-American voting. Generally considered most important US law on civil rights since Reconstruction.
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Medicare Act –
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1965. Combined hospital insurance for retired people with a voluntary plan to cover physician’s bills.
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Chicago Demonstrations
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On August 11, 1965, five days after signing of the Voting Rights Act, tensions b/w Police and Blacks in the largest Af. Am. district in Los Angeles ignited the most destructive race riot in decades. Blacks in Chicago and Springfield, Massachusetts, then took to the streets, looting, burning and battling the police. Extensive poverty and unequal distribution of income and wealth also fueled the riots. Summer of 67′ 150 racial skirmishes and 40 riots made that the most intense and destructive period of racial violence in U.S. history.
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George McGovern –
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Democratic nominee for the Election of 1972. a Senator known for his opposition to the Vietnam War. Had an anti-war campaign against Nixon in 1972 but lot in a landslide. Appointed in 1961 by U.S. President John F. Kennedy as the worldwide director of the Food for Peace program, he remained a longtime leader in ensuring nutrition and food security as a means to fight poverty and political instability. McGovern was appointed United Nations Ambassador on World Hunger in 2001. In 2008, he and Senator Bob Dole were named the 2008 World Food Prize Laureates for their work to promote school-feeding programs globally.
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Sam Ervin –
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Democratic United States Senator from North Carolina from 1954 until 1974. Considered a liberal hero for his support of civil liberties, he is remembered for his work in the investigation committees that brought down Senator Joseph McCarthy in 1954 and President Richard Nixon in 1974.
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Election of ’72 –
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Presidential election between Nixon(R) and George McGovern(D). Emphasizing a good economy and his successes in foreign affairs (especially ending American involvement in Vietnam and establishing relations with China), Nixon won the election in a massive landslide. McGovern only got Massachusetts.
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Domino Theory –
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popular ideology of “Cold Warriors” felt that if one country succumbed to Communism many others around would fall too, increasing the Soviets sphere of influence = bad; sometimes used by the gov as fear mongering tactic
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Vietnamization –
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After the North Vietnamese rejected Nixon’s plan that all the non-South Vietnamese troops needed to be withdrawn in phases and internationally supervised election be held in South Vietnam, the president turned to Vietnamization; the effort to build up Sth. Vietnamese forces while withdrawing American troops. 1969 Nixon reduced Am troop strength by 60,000 but @ the same time ordered the bombing of Cambodia a neutral country to “flush” out Vietcong.
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Oil Embargo –
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started in Oct 1973, OPEC issued an embargo on oil to America bcuz we sent aid to Israel during the Yom Kippur War, created tough economic times for many Americans, furthered the inflation of the period, lifted in March ’74 partly due to Kissinger’s negotiation with Israel
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Henry Kissinger –
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a major role in FP in both Nixon’s and Ford’s terms. Large role in the dĂ©tente with Russia and better relations with China. Served as National Security Advisor then as Secretary of State, possibly a large reason why Nixon had success in his FP
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George Wallace –
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George C. Wallace (AL) was part of the American Independent Party, who appealed to the fears generated by left wing protestors and big government. Had 13.5% in the 1968 Presidential Election.
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Eugene McCarthy –
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announced Candidacy for the 1968 presidential nomination running on issue of the opposition to the war. He won 42% of the Dem. Vote in the New Hampshire Primary, while L.B.J. had 48%. Robert F. Kennedy then announced his candidacy for the Dem. Presidential nomination, but was assassinatedĂ  leading to the L.B.J.’s withdrawal of candidacy and to VP Hubert H. Humphrey becoming the candidate for the Democratic nomination.
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Cambodian Controversy –
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is when Nixon sent in troops into Cambodia. It was controversial because Cambodia was not one of the main countries involved. Nixon also secretly ordered air strikes on Cambodia and Laos, in which these B-52 raids threatened the stability of Cambodia.
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Gulf of Tonkin Resolution –
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(as LBJ’ called it- the “grandma’s nightshirt” b/c it covered everything) was used in August of 1964, after Lyndon Johnson claimed that the North Vietnamese gunboats had fired on American destroyers, the Resolution went through Congress and gave Johnson authorization to use military force in Vietnam. Senate passed it 88 to 2 and the House 416 to 0.
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Tet Offensive –
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On January 31,1968, or the first day of the Vietnamese New Year (a.k.a. Tet), the Vietcong attacked many cities, towns, American Bases, and even Saigon. Even though the Vietcong suffered large losses, they won a psychological victory as Americans began to go against the war.
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DĂ©tente –
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a period of the cold war that developed in the early 1970s after disengagement from the war in Vietnam. During the period Nixon tried to achieve a détente with the communist powers of China and the Soviet Union.
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Kent State –
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public research university in Kent, Ohio. On May 4, 1970, the Kent State Massacre occurred, which involved the shooting of unarmed college students by members of the Ohio National Guard. The guardsmen fired 67 rounds over a period of 13 seconds, killing four students and wounding nine others, one of whom suffered permanent paralysis. Some of the students who were shot had been protesting against the American invasion of Cambodia. There was a significant national response to the shootings: hundreds of universities, colleges, and high schools closed throughout the United States due to a student strike of four million students, and the event further divided the country, at an already socially contentious time, about the role of the United States in the Vietnam War.
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Price and Wage Control –
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used by Nixon to curb inflation, if neither wages nor prices rose inflation would not continue to increase, exemplified most by the 90 day price and wage freeze
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Nixon’s Economic Policy –
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had a New Economic Plan: suspended conversions of the dollar to gold, imposed 90 day price and wage freeze and other mandatory controls, were largely successful but didn’t continue after election, proposed voluntary freezes which were rarely acted upon; he didn’t follow the stereotypical laissez-faire policies of his party
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“Hawks” & “Doves”
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– The nation had two extreme views of the Vietnam war. “Hawks” would accept little short of a victory while “Doves” insisted on negotiating and not fighting. LBJ called his critics “nervous nellies” and demonstrators paraded past the White House chanting, ” Hey, hey, LBJ, how many kids did you kill today?” With all of this the era of Hope and Liberalism was basically killed.
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Election of ’68 –
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Republicans nominated Richard M. Nixon, who chose Spiro T. Agnew (MD) as his running mate in order to appeal to Southerners. George C. Wallace (AL) was part of the American Independent Party, who appealed to the fears generated by left wing protestors and big government. VP Hubert H. Humphrey was the Dem candidate. Nixon defeated Humphrey by a margin of 1%. Wallace had 13.5%, the best showing by a third-party candidate since 1924.
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Watergate Tapes –
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The Watergate tapes, a subset of the Nixon tapes, are a collection of recordings of conversations between U.S. President Richard Nixon and various White House staff. Those investigating the Watergate Scandal demanded he hand over the tapes. Nixon edited them as a result. They later forced him to give the unedited versions and he did. As a result Congress wrote up three impeachments for Nixon but he resigned before he could be formally impeached
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Walter Mondale/Geraldine Ferraro –
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Mondale was part of the democratic farming labor party and was vice president under Jimmy Carter, later he served as the US-Japan ambassador under Clinton. Walter then ran for president in 1984 and chose Ferraro as the vice president and she was the first female vice presidential candidate of a major party
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Gerald Ford –
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In 1974, briefly after Richard “Dicks” Nixon’s resignation, Gerald “Four-head” Ford took office. Ford signed the Helsinki Accord, which moved the nation toward dĂ©tente in the Cold War. He ended U.S. involvement in Vietnam after the North conquered the South. Domestically, Ford took over the shittiest economy since the Great Depression, with inflation and a recession which gave rise to the name “Fagflation” (Stagflation). He pardoned Nixon for his role in the Watergate scandal, and increased Congress’ role on foreign policy. In 1976, he defeated Ronald “Rape-gen” Reagan for the Republication nomination, but lost to Jimmy “Comb-over” Carter.
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Jimmy Carter –
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Took the presidency after defeating ford in the Election of 1976. He created the Department of Energy and Department of Education. He established a national energy policy including conservation, price control, and new technology. He signed the Camp David Accords, the Panama Canal Treaties and the SALT II. His latter time in office was marked by Iran bitching with Iraq. He lost fuel after a while, got wrinkles and saggy skin, so Ronal Reagan beat him in the Election of 1980.
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SALT II –
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It was a controversial experiment of negotiations between Jimmy Carter and Leonid Brezhnev from 1977 to 1979 between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, which sought to curtail the manufacture of strategic nuclear weapons. The terms of the treaty were honored by both sides, yet the US Senate never actually ratified it
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Mayaguez –
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incident involving the Khmer Rouge government in Cambodia that marked the last official battle of the Vietnam War in May of 1975.
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George Bush –
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Served under Ronald Reagan as Vice President then went on to run for President in the Election of 1988. Soon after George “Bullshit” Bush took office, he faced problems with the economy. There was a huge national debt, and after pledging “No new taxes” he increased government spending and raised a few taxes. He provided sex (benefits) to the unemployed which caused the unemployment to be lowest in years. He created acts to help Americans with disabilities -like his son- in 1990. He invaded Panama, cooperated with the Soviet Union, ended the Persian Gulf War with an invasion to Kuwait, and created NAFTA, but ultimately got smacked by Bill Clinton.
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Star Wars (SDI) –
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Strategic Defense Initiative; proposed by Reagan in March 1983 to counter a campaign to freeze the manufacture and deployment of nuclear weapons. Reagan insisted that post-Vietnam America had grown dangerously weak, and massive military expansion was a necessity. SDI was a computerized anti-missile system involving the use of ground and space-based systems to protect the US from nuclear attacks. Critics dubbed the scheme “Star Wars” and experts warned of the danger that it would further escalate the nuclear-arms race. Nonetheless, a costly SDI research program began.
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Sandra Day O’Connor –
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first female member of the Supreme Court, appointed by President Reagan; prior to her appointment to the Court, she was an elected official and judge in Arizona.
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Election of 1980 –
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Reagan (Republican) v. Carter (Democrat); Reagan won with 489 electoral votes and 43 million of the popular vote whereas Carter received 49 electoral votes and 35 million popular votes. Reagan’s confident appearance and plans for a new economic program were factors to his widespread appeal.
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Moral Majority –
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The Moral Majority was a political organization of the United States which had an agenda of evangelical Christian-oriented political lobbying. It was founded in 1979 and dissolved in the late 1980s
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Camp David Accords –
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agreement made between Egyptian leader Anwar el-Sadat and Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin, hosted by President Carter in 1978. The accords set a timetable for giving more autonomy to the Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza, occupied by Israel since the 1967 war. However, this effort by Carter to create peace in the Middle East failed, as Israel continued to build Jewish settlements in the occupied territories while other Arab states rejected the accords.
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Ayatollah Khomeini –
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spiritual head of Iran’s Shiite Muslims who was exiled; under his influence, his followers developed a hatred for their shah and his ties to the West. In January 1979, the shah fled Iran, allowing Khomeini to return. He represented Islamic fundamentalism, imposing strict Islamic rule, and denounced America.
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Olympic Boycott –
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Boycott of the Moscow Summer Games in 1980 led by US. Claimed to be protesting Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, stating that they would not send athletes to compete at 1980 Summer Games unless Russia withdrew its troops
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Supply-side Economics –
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also called trickle-down economics or voodoo economics; a theory that if taxes were cut on the wealthiest people in society, the wealthy would use their extra money to invest in the economy. President Reagan and other supporters of this theory also believed in limited government spending and less government regulation on the economy (laissez-faire). Critics felt that these policies would only result in a bigger gap between rich and poor.
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Anwar Sadat –
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President of Egypt. Ordered an attack on Israeli forces in 1973 and showed enough strength to force peace negotiations. Made overt gestures of peace to Israel and wooed US president Jimmy Carter into assisting with negotiations. The resulting peace agreement (Camp David Accords) earned Sadat the 1978 Nobel Prize for Peace. Assassinated in 1981 by Islamic fundamentalists who opposed the peace treaty with Israel.
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Iranian hostage crisis –
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The Iran hostage crisis was a diplomatic crisis between Iran and the United States wherein 53 Americans were held hostage for 444 days from November 4, 1979 to January 20, 1981, after a group of Islamist students and militants took over the American Embassy in support of the Iranian Revolution. The US sent military in in Operation Eagle Claw and it failed, killing eight, they were later released with the signing of the Algier accords
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Mickel Gorbachev –
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Soviet official. General secretary of Communist Party of the Soviet Union, president of Soviet Union in 1990-1991. His efforts to democratize his country’s political system and decentralize its economy led to the downfall of communism and the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. In part because he ended the Soviet Union’s postwar domination of eastern Europe, Gorbachev was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1990.
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Iran Contra Affair –
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Secret arrangement in 1980s to provide funds to Nicaraguan contra rebels from profits gained by selling arms to Iran. Product of two separate initiatives during Reagan’s administration. The first was a commitment to aid the contras who were conducting a guerrilla war against the Sandinista government of Nicaragua. The second was to placate “moderates” within the Iranian government in order to secure the release of American hostages held by pro-Iranian groups in Lebanon and to influence Iranian foreign policy in a pro-Western direction. Caused Reagan’s image to suffer.
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Berlin Wall Falls
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– November 1989. Occurred when Hungary’s Communist government fell. They opened their borders to allow East Germans to cross from East to West. Brought rising of European democratization. East and West Germany reunified into a single German state
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Reaganomics –
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refers to the economic policies promoted by the U.S. President Ronald Reagan during the 1980s. The four pillars of Reagan’s economic policy were to: 1. Reduce government spending, 2. Reduce income and capital gains marginal tax rates, 3. Reduce government regulation of the economy, 4. Control the money supply to reduce inflation
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Contras –
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an anti-Sandinista guerilla army organized and financed by the CIA in 1982 to overthrow Nicaragua’s leftist Sandinista regime which Reagan claimed was turning Nicaragua into a procommunist state like Cuba. The contras conducted raids, planted mines, and carried out sabotage that took a heavy toll on civilian lives. As this campaign became an obsession for Reagan, Americans feared another Vietnam-like war. Congress voted a yearlong halt in US military aid to the contras in December of ’82 and imposed a two-year ban in ’84. Despite these prohibitions, the White House continued to send money to the contras. In ’88, Reagan backed a truce between the Sandinistas and the contras arranged by Central American leaders, but he still hoped for a contra victory.
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Bill Clinton –
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Bill Clinton was described as a New Democrat because of his policies on issues such as the North American Free Trade Agreement and welfare reform. Clinton controlled a successful economy which included a balanced budget and a federal surplus. On the heels of a failed attempt at health care reform with a Democratic Congress, Republicans won control of the House of Representatives for the first time in forty years. Clinton was re-elected and became the first member of the Democratic Party since Franklin D. Roosevelt to win a second term as president. Later he was impeached for obstruction of justice, but was subsequently acquitted by the U.S. Senate. Clinton Also created the William J. Clinton Foundation to promote and address international causes such as treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS and global warming.
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Clinton Impeachment –
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Bill Clinton was tried in the Supreme Court in 1999 for perjury, obstruction of justice, and malfeasance in office. (sexual stuff)

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